Implementing File System Security

If you’re planning to take the SY0-501 exam, you should have a good understanding of file system security as a method of protecting data. This includes understanding Linux systems that support GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG), which is a command-line tool used to encrypt and decrypt files with a password.

For example, can you answer this practice test question?

Q. Lisa has created an application on her development computer. She wants to test it on a Linux-based computer she commonly uses for testing. However, she wants to ensure it is isolated when she tests it. Which of the following is the BEST solution to meet her needs?

A. Use chroot.

B. Sideload the application.

C. Use FDE.

D. Use chmod.

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation are available at the end of this post.

Permission Issues and Access Violations

A common security issue with permissions is giving users more permissions than they need. The principle of least privilege is a core security principle. In short, it means that users are given only the rights and permissions they need to do their job, and no more. When users have more permissions than they need, they can accidentally, or maliciously, cause problems.

An access violation occurs if users access materials that they shouldn’t. As an example, imagine that Bart is a help-desk technician. During a review of logs, security administrators discover that Bart has accessed payroll data though he has no business looking at this data. This is an access violation and should be investigated. A primary objective of security investigators is to discover how Bart accessed the materials.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-501 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including information on the number of questions, test duration, passing score, types of questions and more. Also includes a listing of the exam objectives)
  • 75 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Identity and Access Management (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Network Technologies and Tools (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Comparing Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Common Attacks (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Protecting Against Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Using Risk Management Tools (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Controls to Protect Assets (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography and PKI (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Policies to Mitigate Risks (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • 75 question post-assessment exam
  • Glossary

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 75-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

3 sets Performance-based Questions

Three new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 30 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 494 Online Security+ Glossary Flashcards
  • 222 Online Security+ Acronyms Flashcards
  • 223 Online Security+ Remember This Slide from the popular CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 20 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over two hours hour and 53 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. Over one hour and 40 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Access to all of the online content that is available for free to anyone that purchases the CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. This includes labs, extra practice test questions, and supplementary materials

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here

Linux Permissions

CompTIA has been increasingly adding questions about Linux so you should understand some basics about Linux permissions. There are three primary entities that you can assign permissions to within Linux. They are:

  • Owner. This is a user who owns the file or directory and the owner is typically granted all permissions for the file or directory.
  • Group. The file can also be owned by a named group. Members of this group are granted specific permissions for the file or directory. These permissions are typically less than the permissions applied to the owner.
  • Others. You can think of this as everyone else. Permissions applied here do not override the Owner or Group permissions.

In addition to understanding who you can assign permissions to, it’s also important to understand the basic Linux permissions. These may be represented as letters (r, w, and x) or as numbers. They are:

  • Read (r). This allows you to view the file and is represented with the number 4.
  • Write (w). This allows you to modify the file and is represented with the number 2.
  • Execute (x). This allows you to run the file (assuming it is an application) and is represented with the number 1.

If a permission is not assigned, you’ll see it represented as a dash. It’s also possible to assign multiple permissions, such as Read and Execute; Read and Write; and Read, Write, and Execute. The following bullets show the numbers used to represent combined permissions:

  • 5 indicates Read (4) + Execute (1)
  • 6 indicates Read (4) + Write (2)
  • 7 indicates Read (4) + Write (2) + Execute (1)

The table shows how these Linux permission types are often displayed in a file access control list (FACL). Each line represents the FACL for a different file.

Implementing File System Security_1

Looking at the table, you can see that the following permissions will be assigned to the different entities:

  • Success.exe. Owner has read, write, and execute permissions (rwx), Group has read and write permissions (rw-), and other users have zero permissions (- – -).
  • Study.docx. Owner has read, write, and execute permissions (rwx), Group has read and write permissions (rw-), and other users have read permissions (r- -).
  • UCanPass.exe. Owner has read, write, and execute permissions (rwx), Group has read and execute permissions (r-x), and other users have read and execute permissions (r-x).

This table shows these same permissions represented as numbers.

Implementing File System Security

Administrators typically use the chmod command (short for change mode) to change permissions for files. As an example, imagine that a file named Success.exe currently has the permissions set as 760 (rwx rw- – – -), but you want to change the permissions to 755 (rwx r-x r-x). You could use the following command:

chmod 755 success.exe

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 501 Version of the Study Guide

The CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201, SY0-301, and SY0-401 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.  It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous three versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.



Over 300 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 75 question pre-test
  • A 75 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-501 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must-read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Windows Permissions

Windows file and folder permissions are a little easier to understand because they are assigned by just pointing and clicking. For example, to modify the permissions for a file or folder, an administrator would right-click the file within File Explorer, select the Security tab, and modify the permissions. The following list shows the basic Windows permissions:

  • Read. Users granted read permission can view the contents of a file or folder.
  • Read & Execute. Users granted the Read & Execute permission have Read permission and they can also run or execute programs.
  • Write. Users can create new files and folders, and they can also make changes to existing files and folders. This would typically be assigned with Read permission.
  • Modify. When granted the Modify permission to a file or a folder, a user can read, execute, write, and delete files and folders. The primary addition is the ability to delete files and folders.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Q. Lisa has created an application on her development computer. She wants to test it on a Linux-based computer she commonly uses for testing. However, she wants to ensure it is isolated when she tests it. Which of the following is the BEST solution to meet her needs?

A. Use chroot.

B. Sideload the application.

C. Use FDE.

D. Use chmod.

Answer is A. The best answer of the available choices is to use the chroot command to isolate the application within a sandbox.

Sideloading is the process of copying an application to a mobile device, not a Linux-based computer.

Full disk encryption (FDE) is associated with mobile devices and would not isolate an application.

The chmod command is used to change permissions on a Linux system.

See Chapter 5 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide for more information on protecting data.

Read More

Implementing Secure Network Using Devices

If you’re planning to take the SY0-501 exam, you should have a basic understanding of implementing a secure network. This includes using various network devices to support organizational security.

For example, can you answer this practice test question?

Q. Your email server is getting overloaded with spam and much of it is malicious. You need to implement a solution that can help reduce the amount of spam reaching the email server. Which of the following is the BEST choice?

A. Reverse proxy

B. Media gateway

C. Web application firewall

D. Mail gateway

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation are available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Media Gateway

A media gateway is a device that converts data from the format used on one network to the format used on another network. As an example, a VoIP gateway converts telephony traffic between traditional phone lines and an IP-based network. This allows users to make and receive phone calls using VoIP equipment and the gateway can translate the traffic and transmit the calls over a traditional phone line.

Proxy Servers

Many networks use proxy servers (or forward proxy servers) to forward requests for services (such as HTTP or HTTPS) from clients. They can improve performance by caching content and some proxy servers can restrict users’ access to inappropriate web sites by filtering content. A proxy server is located on the edge of the network bordering the Internet and the intranet, as shown in the figure.

Implementing Secure Network Using Devices

Administrators configure internal clients to use the proxy server for specific protocols. The proxy accepts their requests, retrieves the content from the Internet, and then returns the data to the client. Most proxy servers only act as a proxy for HTTP and HTTPS. However, proxy servers can also proxy other Internet protocols, such as FTP.

Caching Content for Performance

The proxy server increases the performance of Internet requests by caching each result received from the Internet. Any data that is in the proxy server’s cache doesn’t need to be retrieved from the Internet again to fulfill another client’s request. In this context, cache simply means “temporary storage.” Cache could be a dedicated area of RAM, or, in some situations, it could also be an area on a high-performance disk subsystem.

As an example, if Lisa retrieves a web page from GetCertifiedGetAhead.com, the proxy server would store the result in cache. If Homer later requests the same page, the proxy server retrieves the page from cache and sends it to Homer. This reduces the amount of Internet bandwidth used for web browsing because the page doesn’t need to be retrieved again.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 501 Version of the Study Guide

The CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201, SY0-301, and SY0-401 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.  It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous three versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.



Over 300 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 75 question pre-test
  • A 75 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-501 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must-read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Mail Gateways

A mail gateway is a server that examines all incoming and outgoing email and attempts to reduce risks associated with email. Many vendors sell appliances that perform all the desired services of a mail gateway. Administrators locate it between the email server and the Internet and configure it for their purposes. All mail goes to the gateway before it goes to the email server. Additionally, many vendors include a mail gateway within a UTM appliance. The mail gateway is just another security feature within the UTM appliance.

Spam is unsolicited email and attackers commonly use spam to launch attacks. For example, spam can include malware as an attachment or it might include a link to a malicious web site. A spam filter within a mail gateway filters out spam from incoming email. By filtering out spam, it helps block attacks.

Mail gateways often include data loss prevention (DLP) capabilities. They examine outgoing email looking for confidential or sensitive information and block them. As an example, imagine an organization is working on a secret project with a codeword of “DOH.” All documents associated with this project have the keyword within them. The mail gateway includes this keyword in its searches and when it detects the keyword within an email or an attachment, it blocks the email. Administrators have the choice of configuring the gateway to notify security personnel, the user who sent the email, or both when it blocks an email.

Many mail gateways also support encryption. They can encrypt all outgoing email to ensure confidentiality for the data-in-transit, or only encrypt certain data based on policies. For example, if an organization is working on a project with another organization, administrators can configure the gateway to encrypt all traffic sent to the other organization. The method of encryption varies from vendor to vendor. For example, some vendors use certificate-based encryption. Others use password-based encryption. 


Full Security+ Course

SY0-501 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including information on the number of questions, test duration, passing score, types of questions and more. Also includes a listing of the exam objectives)
  • 75 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Identity and Access Management (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Network Technologies and Tools (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Comparing Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Common Attacks (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Protecting Against Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Using Risk Management Tools (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Controls to Protect Assets (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography and PKI (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Policies to Mitigate Risks (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • 75 question post-assessment exam
  • Glossary

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 75-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

3 sets Performance-based Questions

Three new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 30 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 494 Online Security+ Glossary Flashcards
  • 222 Online Security+ Acronyms Flashcards
  • 223 Online Security+ Remember This Slide from the popular CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 20 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over two hours hour and 53 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. Over one hour and 40 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Access to all of the online content that is available for free to anyone that purchases the CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. This includes labs, extra practice test questions, and supplementary materials

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here

Q. Your email server is getting overloaded with spam and much of it is malicious. You need to implement a solution that can help reduce the amount of spam reaching the email server. Which of the following is the BEST choice?

A. Reverse proxy

B. Media gateway

C. Web application firewall

D. Mail gateway

Answer is D. A mail gateway is placed between an email server and the Internet and it can filter out spam.

None of the other solutions includes a spam filter.

A reverse proxy protects an internal web server.

A media gateway converts data from one format to another, such as telephony traffic to IP-based traffic.

A web application firewall protects a web server.

See Chapter 3 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide  for more information on implementing a secure network.

Read More

Sample Performance-Based Question

A reader recently queried about a sample performance-based question he saw on CompTIA’s website. He was confused by it and wanted to know how he could answer it.

Normally, it’s easy to answer these types of queries. I encourage the reader to read the explanation and point out that questions without explanations may be brain dumps. One of the dangers with brain dumps is that they often have incorrect answers. This combined with no explanations encourage people to memorize incorrect answers causing them to fail the live exam without knowing why.

Unfortunately, CompTIA chose not to give an explanation with the sample.

Similar Sample Performance-Based Question

Here’s a similar sample Performance-Based Question based on the sample posted by Comptia. It’s not exact, but if you apply the same knowledge learned with this, you can correctly answer the CompTIA sample.

Question. After a recent attack, security administrators configured a DMZ and placed appropriate servers within it.

After completing their work, one of the users on the 2nd floor reported that he could no longer access the getcertifiedgetahead.com site on the Internet. The following graphic shows part of the network:

Instructions. 

Check the IP addresses and connectivity for each of the relevant computers to determine which computer has been impacted by this change.

Check the ACL and change the rule causing the problem.

Performance-Based Question Function

When you click on Bart’s computer, you’ll see the command line. What command would you enter to check its connectivity?  What command would you enter to determine its IP address?

Similarly, when you click on Homer’s computer, you’ll see the command line. What command would you enter to check its connectivity?  What command would you enter to determine its IP address?

Last, when you click on the router, you can see the configuration for each of the interfaces, and the access control list.

Performance-Based Question Answer Which Computer

Click on Homer’s computer and enter:

ping getcertifiedgetahead.com

It fails.

Because you have verified that Homer’s computer is the one having the problem, you may think you don’t need to repeat this step on Bart’s computer. However, if you skip it, you’ won’t get one of the available points from the question.

Remember, the instructions stated:

“Check the IP addresses and connectivity for each of the relevant computers to determine which computer has been impacted by this change.”

The relevant computers are on Floor 2. Click on Bart’s computer and enter

ping getcertifiedgetahead.com

It succeeds.

At this point, you have answered one part of the question. You know which computer (Homer’s) was affected by the change.

What about Lisa and Marge’s computers? They are on floor 1 and the question states the problem is limited to one of the computers on floor 2.

Performance-Based Question Answer Check IP Addresses

Return to Homer’s computer and enter

ipconfig

You see

IPv4 Address …….: 192.168.0.82

Subnet Mask ……..:255.255.255.224

Default Gateway….:192.168.0.65

Because Homer’s computer is the one having the problem, you may think you don’t need to repeat this step on Bart’s computer. However, if you skip it, you’ won’t get one of the available points from the question.

Remember, the instructions stated:

“Check the IP addresses and connectivity for each of the relevant computers to determine which computer has been impacted by this change.”

The relevant computers are on Floor 2. Click on Bart’s computer and enter

ipconfig

You see

IPv4 Address …….: 192.168.0.68

Subnet Mask ……..:255.255.255.224

Default Gateway….:192.168.0.65

It succeeds.

At this point, you have answered two parts of the question. You know which computer was affected by the change (Homer) and you know the IP addresses of both the computers on floor 2.

Performance-Based Question Answer Check Interfaces

Click on the router. You’ll see the configuration for each of the interfaces.

eth1

  • Address: 192.168.0.65
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.224
  • Network: 162.168.0.64/27
  • Broadcast: 192.168.0.95

eth2

  • Address: 192.168.0.33
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.224
  • Network: 162.168.0.32/27
  • Broadcast: 192.1680.63

eth3

  • Address: 192.0.2.2
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.252
  • Network: 192.0.2.0/30
  • Broadcast: 192.0.2.3

Everything looks good here. Note that floor 2 connects to the eth1 interface of the router. It’s IP address is 192.168.0.65. Each computer on floor 2 should use this as its default gateway, and they do.

Performance-Based Question Answer Subnetting

Have you learned subnetting yet? If not, it’s time. There isn’t enough room in this short blog to teach subnetting, but you should be aware of the range of valid IP addresses in a subnet. Especially if you’re planning on taking the Network+ exam.

The eth1 interface is configured for the network 192.168.0.64.27 as shown when you look at the interfaces.

What is the valid range of IP addresses for this network?

The first IP address is 192.168.0.64/27 but you can’t use it because it is the network address. The valid IP address is found by adding 1. It is 192.168.0.65/27.

The last IP address is 192.168.0.95/27 but you can’t use it because it is the broadcast address. The question doesn’t require you to figure this out because it shows the broadcast address. The last valid IP address is found by subtracting one from the broadcast address. It is 192.168.0.94/27.

In other words, the range of valid IP addresses in the network is

192.168.0.65 to 192.168.0.94

Homer’s computer failed the connectivity test, but it has an assigned address (192.168.0.82) within the range of valid IP addresses. The subnet mask also matches. The CIDR notation of /27 is the same as a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224.

Check out the Subnetting and Security+ blog post for more detailed information on identifying the first and last valid IP addresses in a subnet.

Performance-Based Question Answer Check ACL

Click on the Access Control List for the router. You’ll see the following rules:

RuleSourceDestinationProtocolPortAccess
1192.168.0.64/27192.168.0.32/37AnyAnyAccept
2192.168.0.64/27AnyTCP/UDP22, 3389Deny
3Any192.168.0.32/27TCP80, 443Accept
4192.168.0.80/28AnyAnyAnyDeny
5192.168.0.64/27AnyAny123Allow
6AnyAnyAnyAnyDeny

Do you see which rule is at fault?

Rule 1 specifies that all traffic from Floor 2 to the DMZ is accepted.

Rule 2 denies all traffic from Floor 2 using port 22 or 3389. Port 22 is used by Secure Shell (SSH) and port 3389 is used by the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP).

Rule 3 accepts any traffic from anywhere and destined for the DMZ using ports 80 and 443. Port 80 is used by the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and port 443 is used by HTTP Secure (HTTPS).

Rule 4 denies all traffic from 192.168.0.80/28.

Rule 5 allows all traffic from the DMZ using port 123. Port 123 is used by the Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Rule 6 is an implicit deny rule. All traffic that isn’t expressly allowed by a previous rule is denied.

If you can identify the rule causing the problem, just click it.

Performance-Based Question Answer Subnetting Pt 2

Can you identify the range of address for the address of 19.168.0.80/28?

The first address is 192.168.0.80, which is the network ID. The first usable address is 192.168.0.81.

The last address is 192.168.0.95 which is the broadcast ID. The last usable address is 192.168.0.94.

In other words, this defines a range of addresses from 192.168.0.81 to 192.168.0.94.

Because Homer’s computer is in this range (192.168.0.82), rule 4 blocks all traffic from Homer’s computer.

Deleting rule 4 resolves the problem. If you do so, you will get the remaining two points available for this question.

CompTIA Sample Performance-Based Question

Try it yourself. See if you can get all four available points from the sample provided by CompTIA.

You may also like to check out this page that discusses the Performance-Based Questions

 

 

 

 

Read More

Identifying Application Attacks

If you’re planning to take the SY0-501 exam, you should have a good understanding of the common attacks related to different types of servers. This includes a wide assortment of attacks such as application attacks and gaining some insight into preventing many of them.

For example, can you answer this practice test question?

Q. While creating a web application, a developer adds code to limit data provided by users. The code prevents users from entering special characters. Which of the following attacks will this code MOST likely prevent?

A. Man-in-the-browser

B. Amplification

C. XSS

D. Domain hijacking

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation are available at the end of this post.

Identifying Application Attacks

Injection Attacks

There are multiple types of injection attacks beyond DLL injection and SQL injection attacks discussed previously in this chapter. Another type of injection attack is a command injection attack.

In some cases, attackers can inject operating system commands into an application using web page forms or text boxes. Any web page that accepts input from users is a potential threat. Directory traversal is a specific type of command injection attack that attempts to access a file by including the full directory path, or traversing the directory structure.

For example, in Unix systems, the passwd file includes user logon information, and it is stored in the /etc directory with a full directory path of /etc/passwd. Attackers can use commands such as../../etc/passwd or /etc/passwd to read the file. Similarly, they could use a remove directory command (such as rm -rf) to delete a directory, including all files and subdirectories. Input validation can prevent these types of attacks.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Cross-Site Scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is another web application vulnerability that can be prevented with input validation techniques. Attackers embed malicious HTML or JavaScript code into a web site’s code. The code executes when the user visits the site.

You may be wondering why the acronym isn’t CSS instead of XSS. The reason is that web sites use Cascading Style Sheets identified as CSS and CSS files are not malicious.

The primary protection against XSS attacks is at the web application with sophisticated input validation techniques. Developers should avoid any methods that allow the web page to display untrusted data. Additionally, OWASP strongly recommends the use of a security encoding library. When implemented, an encoding library will sanitize HTML code and prevent XSS attacks. OWASP includes more than 10 rules that developers can follow to prevent XSS attacks.

It’s also important to educate users about the dangers of clicking links. Some XSS attacks send emails with malicious links within them. The XSS attack fails if users do not click the link.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-501 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including information on the number of questions, test duration, passing score, types of questions and more. Also includes a listing of the exam objectives)
  • 75 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Identity and Access Management (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Network Technologies and Tools (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Comparing Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Common Attacks (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Protecting Against Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Using Risk Management Tools (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Controls to Protect Assets (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography and PKI (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Policies to Mitigate Risks (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • 75 question post-assessment exam
  • Glossary

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 75-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

3 sets Performance-based Questions

Three new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 30 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 494 Online Security+ Glossary Flashcards
  • 222 Online Security+ Acronyms Flashcards
  • 223 Online Security+ Remember This Slide from the popular CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 20 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over two hours hour and 53 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. Over one hour and 40 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Access to all of the online content that is available for free to anyone that purchases the CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. This includes labs, extra practice test questions, and supplementary materials

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here

Cross-Site Request Forgery

Cross-site request forgery (XSRF or CSRF) is an attack where an attacker tricks a user into performing an action on a web site. The attacker creates a specially crafted HTML link and the user performs the action without realizing it.

As an innocent example of how HTML links create action, consider this HTML link: http://www.google.com/search?q=Success. If users click this link, it works just as if the user browsed to Google and entered Success as a search term. The ?q=Success part of the query causes the action.

Many web sites use the same type of HTML queries to perform actions. For example, imagine a web site that supports user profiles. If users wanted to change profile information, they could log on to the site, make the change, and click a button. The web site may use a link like this to perform the action:

http://getcertifiedgetahead.com/edit?action=set&key=email&value=you@home.com

Attackers use this knowledge to create a malicious link. For example, the following link could change the email address in the user profile, redirecting the user’s email to the attacker:

http://getcertifiedgetahead.com/edit?action=set&key=email&value=hacker@hackersrs.com

Although this shows one possibility, there are many more. If a web site supports any action via an HTML link, an attack is possible. This includes making purchases, changing passwords, transferring money, and much more.

Web sites typically won’t allow these actions without users first logging on. However, if users have logged on before, authentication information is stored on their system either in a cookie or in the web browser’s cache. Some web sites automatically use this information to log users on as soon as they visit. In some cases, the XSRF attack allows the attacker to access the user’s password.

Users should be educated on the risks related to links from sources they don’t recognize. Phishing emails often include malicious links that look innocent enough to users, but can cause significant harm. If users don’t click the link, they don’t launch the XSRF attack.

However, just as with cross-site scripting, the primary burden of protection from XSRF falls on the web site developers. Developers need to be aware of XSRF attacks and the different methods used to protect against them. One method is to use dual authentication and force the user to manually enter credentials prior to performing actions. Another method is to expire the cookie after a short period, such as after 10 minutes, preventing automatic logon for the user.

Many programming languages support XSRF tokens. For example, Python and Django, two popular web development languages, require the use of an XSRF token in any page that includes a form, though these languages call them CSRF tokens. This token is a large random number generated each time the form is displayed. When a user submits the form, the web page includes the token along with other form data. The web application then verifies that the token in the HTML request is the same as the token included in the web form.

The HTML request might look something like this:

getcertifiedgetahead.com/edit?action=set&key=email&value=you@home.com&token=1357924

The token is typically much longer. If the website receives a query with an incorrect error, it typically raises a 403 Forbidden error. Attackers can’t guess the token, so they can’t craft malicious links that will work against the site.


CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 501 Version of the Study Guide

The CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201, SY0-301, and SY0-401 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.  It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous three versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.



Over 300 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 75 question pre-test
  • A 75 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-501 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must-read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Q. While creating a web application, a developer adds code to limit data provided by users. The code prevents users from entering special characters. Which of the following attacks will this code MOST likely prevent?

A. Man-in-the-browser

B. Amplification

C. XSS

D. Domain hijacking

Answer is C. A cross-site scripting (XSS) attack can be blocked by using input validation techniques to filter special characters such as the < and > characters used in HTML code.

None of   the other listed attacks require the use of special characters.

A man-in-the-browser attack exploits vulnerabilities in browsers to capture user data entries.

An amplification attack increases the amount of data sent to a victim to overwhelm it.

A domain hijacking attack changes the domain registration of a domain name without the permission of the owner.

See Chapter 7 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide for more information on application attacks.

Read More

Near-Future Businesses That Will Require Digital Security Professionals

There is typically no shortage of need for digital security professionals. Our world is increasingly digital, and it seems that people are becoming more aware of the threats they face in this world by the day, meaning security is always becoming more relevant. With that said though, anyone considering or practicing this sort of profession would do well to maintain perspective on what could be around the corner as well. As it happens, there are a number of near-future industries and sectors that, in all likelihood, are going to present significant need for digital security professionals.

Smart Homes

Smart homes aren’t entirely new, but they are still emerging. What started as a series of interesting home tech developments (like smart thermostats with easy controls and some learning capabilities) is still in the process of evolving into full-fledged home systems. We’re likely a few years away from Ironman-like home setups in which we can simply speak commands and make just about anything happen – from adjusting temperature, to turning on security systems, to running various automated cleaning systems. However, as smart home tech has evolved, we’ve also seen more questions about the safety of it all. Basically, a lot of the same tech that improves energy efficiency and makes our homes feel more modern can also signal prowlers as to when people are home. Additionally, with so many connected products and networks, there is in theory more opportunity for hackers and digital thieves. Because of all of this, we would imagine that this will become a very busy industry for digital security professionals.

Fintech

It’s hard to really describe fintech as a single industry, but basically it describes the modern blend of financial systems and practices with technology. Anything from a digital banking network to a cryptocurrency wallet can be considered fintech, and in a way it all revolves around digital security. People won’t be comfortable using any of these products or services if they aren’t fully convinced that their finances and personal information are safe. It’s a broad category, but certainly one that will provide a lot of opportunities.

Betting

The betting industry is by no stretch of the imagination a new one – but it is becoming newly accessible, in numerous ways. For one thing, regulated online bookies are becoming more trusted and more popular; they’re constantly upgrading their offerings and presenting more appealing services and bonus offerings, and many of them are also producing mobile apps. Meanwhile, the same services are also starting to become available to new audiences – such as the American market (potentially millions of bettors strong), which is only just starting to open itself, legally, to betting. Throw in expected tech-based changes, such as augmented reality betting at live sporting events, and it’s safe to say this is going to be a whole new industry in just a matter of years. And given that the whole thing revolves around the constant exchange of money, digital security professionals will be needed to help it run smoothly.

Bio-Based Identity Systems

This may sound like a very specific category, and in a way it is – but it’s also a massive one. Millions are already using a service called “Clear,” for instance, that uses biometrics to identify individuals at airports and other public venues. The ideal vision of Clear’s functionality is quite exciting: better security, greater efficiency, and a subconscious sense of security. However, it goes without saying that this sort of tech needs to be monitored closely from a security standpoint. Should anything like Clear be corrupted in any way, the potential threats are enormous.

Read More

Viewing Logs

While taking the SY0-501 exam, you may come across some questions that require you to read logs. This confuses some people because logs aren’t written in plain English. However, if you understand the objectives of the exam, you should be able dissect the log to get the relevant information.

As an example, see if you can answer this question:

Q. You are examining logs on a server in your DMZ and come across the following log output:

12:34:56.789 UTC #SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS:  Login Success [user: hsimpson]
[Source: 192.168.15.78] [localport: 23] at 12:34:56.789 UTC Sat May 11 2019

Which of the following is an appropriate response after seeing this entry?

A. Nothing. This is a normal entry.

B. Disable SSH

C. Disable telnet on the server

D. Disable the user account

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation are available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Reading Log Entries

Admittedly, some of the log entry looks like a code. However, the relevant information in simple text.

12:34:56.789 UTC #SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS:  Login Success [user: hsimpson]
[Source: 192.168.15.78] [localport: 23] at 12:34:56.789 UTC Sat May 11 2019

Do you see it?

If you have a basic understanding of ports and protocols, this part of the entry should attract your attention:  [localport: 23].

Telnet uses port 23 and is no longer recommended for use because it sends credentials across a network in clear text. Secure Shell (SSH) is generally used as a replacement and it uses port 22.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-501 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including information on the number of questions, test duration, passing score, types of questions and more. Also includes a listing of the exam objectives)
  • 75 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Identity and Access Management (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Network Technologies and Tools (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Comparing Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Common Attacks (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Protecting Against Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Using Risk Management Tools (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Controls to Protect Assets (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography and PKI (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • Implementing Policies to Mitigate Risks (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 15 practice test questions)
  • 75 question post-assessment exam
  • Glossary

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 75-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

3 sets Performance-based Questions

Three new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 30 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 494 Online Security+ Glossary Flashcards
  • 222 Online Security+ Acronyms Flashcards
  • 223 Online Security+ Remember This Slide from the popular CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 20 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-501 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over two hours hour and 53 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. Over one hour and 40 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Access to all of the online content that is available for free to anyone that purchases the CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. This includes labs, extra practice test questions, and supplementary materials

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-501 Full Security+ Course Here

Cisco IOS Log Entries

The entry cane from a Cisco IOS device. While you don’t need to know this to answer the question, it may be useful to understand the format of the log entry.

12:34:56.789 UTC #SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS:  Login Success [user: hsimpson]
[Source: 192.168.15.78] [localport: 23] at 12:34:56.789 UTC Sat May 11 2019

The first part of the entry is simply a time stamp. It indicates a time of s 12:34 and 56 seconds and 789 milliseconds. UTC indicates the time zone of coordinated universal time but could be any valid time zone. You won’t always see the milliseconds or the time zone in a log entry but you can count on a time stamp.

Next, you see #SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS:  Login Success [user: hsimpson]. Not all entries are so clear, but this indicates that user hsimpson successfully logged on. The code 5 indicates the severity level of a notification. Notifications aren’t always logged.

The last part of the entry is [Source: 192.168.15.78] [localport: 23] at 12:34:56.789 UTC Sat May 11 2019. The source indicates the IP address (192.168.15.78) of the user’s system and the localport entry indicates the logical port (23) accessed to log on. Last, it indicates the time and date when the user logged on.

Remember, just as you don’t need to know the exact composition of a log pile to know that it has wood in it, you don’t need to know everything about a log entry to dissect it. Most log entries have some commonality. Don’t allow yourself to get thrown if you see an unfamiliar format. Just look for the common parts of the entry, and the cleartext parts of the entry.

Photo by Pär Pärsson on Unsplash

Reading Log Entries Question and Answer

Q. You are examining logs on a server in your DMZ and come across the following log output:

12:34:56.789 UTC #SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS:  Login Success [user: hsimpson]
[Source: 192.168.15.78] [localport: 23] at 12:34:56.789 UTC Sat May 11 2019

Which of the following is an appropriate response after seeing this entry?

A. Nothing. This is a normal entry.

B. Disable SSH

C. Disable telnet on the server

D. Disable the user account

C is correct. The entry indicates a user is logging onto a server in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) using Telnet but Telnet sends credentials across a network in clear text and has been deprecated. As a best practice Telnet should be disabled. If remote access is desirer, Secure Shell (SSH) should be enabled instead.

It’s useful to break down the log entries. The time is shown as 12:34 and 56 seconds and 789 milliseconds. The date is given as Sat May 11 2019 in the UTC (coordinated universal time) time zone. The SEC_LOGIN-5-LOGIN_SUCCESS entry is a notification (severity 5) indicating a successful login by a user with username hsimpson. The [Source: 192.168.15.78] shows the source IP address. [localport: 23] indicates it is using port 23, the default port for Telnet, which is a key piece of information.

Seeing that someone is logging onto a server in the DMZ using Telnet is not a normal entry because Telnet should be disabled.

SSH sends encrypted traffic to port 22, but port 22 isn’t shown in the log entry. It would be appropriate to enable SSH is remote access is desired.

The user account (hsimpson) may be valid so it isn’t appropriate to disable this account with the information given in the scenario.

Chapter 8 of the CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide covers telnet including its default port and chapter 3 covers SSH.

SY0-501 objective 2.6 Given a scenario, implement secure protocols.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 501 Version of the Study Guide

The CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201, SY0-301, and SY0-401 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.  It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous three versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.



Over 300 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 75 question pre-test
  • A 75 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-501 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must-read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

You might also like to look at these blogs.

Identifying Ports in Log Entries

Log Entries and Security+

 

 

Read More
CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

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