Darril Gibson’s Projects

I’ve been busy with several projects recently, including putting together the Darril Gibson website so I haven’t been able to post as often as I would have liked. However, on this Memorial Day I thought I’d jot down a few notes letting people know what I’ve been up to.

  • CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide is off to the printer. I worked with two outstanding authors (James M. Stewart and Mike Chapple) on this project and it covers the updated objectives for the CISSP exam.
  • A+ Training Kit. I’ve been actively working on this book for the new 220-801 and 220-802 objectives. I like the way the new objectives are laid out and am pretty happy with the progress of the book. Bill Talbott is doing a great job as a technical editor and Jose Vargas has provided me with some great technical information on hardware topics and even provided input to a couple of chapters.
  • Professional Development. I’ve been taking an online class for authors that has been giving me some great information. Over the years, I’ve taken many technical courses to learn new material so it made a lot of sense for me to take a class designed for authors. One of the trainers strongly suggested creating a site with your name so I took some time to do that. You can see it here: darrilgibson.com.
  • Windows 8. I’ve been playing around with Windows 8 quite a bit in anticipation of its release. I’ve used both VMWare and Oracle’s VirtualBox to install it on virtual systems because Microsoft doesn’t have a 64-bit virtualization product. That will change with Windows 8 though. Windows 8 will include Hyper-V allowing you to install 64-bit virtual operating systems.
  • Tweets by Darril Gibson. I’m still putting out daily tips on Network+ and Security+ topics via Twitter. Thankfully, I have the help of twuffer.com to schedule them.
  • CompTIA Network+ N10-005 Practice Test Questions (Get Certified Get Ahead). I’ve received feedback from several readers letting me know this has helped them take and pass the exam. Others have liked the mobile app with practice test questions. I have some notes for a quick cert guide and worked on chapters as a supplement for the practice test questions but so far other projects are consuming my time. My brother is working on a full book and when it comes I’ll let you know.
  • CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-301 Study Guide. I regularly receive emails from people that have successfully passed the exam after using this book and from instructors that are using it to help their students take and pass the exam. Last week I heard from an instructor in Okinawa Japan which brought back memories of my time there – it’s a beautiful island. I also hear from people about how the Security+ SY0-301 Audio and the mobile app with practice test questions has helped them.
  • Updated Bio. During one of the author classes I attended, Nancy Juetten gave a great presentation on updating bios. She mentioned that you should be able to have a two sentence bio, a 50 word bio, a 100 word bio, and a 300 word bio. These are worthwhile for anyone and if you have them, you can easily plug it into a resume or cover letter. Here’s my two sentence bio:

Years ago, Darril Gibson set a goal to become a full time author and write books that help others. Since then, he has authored or coauthored more than 25 books and regularly receives emails from readers sharing their successes with him after reading one of his books.”

Give it a try. See if you can write your own two sentence bio that gives some insight into who you are.

Happy Memorial Day and good luck in all your adventures,

Darril Gibson

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Intrusion Detection Systems and Intrusion Prevention Systems

Intrusion Detection Systems and Intrusion Prevention Systems

If you’re studying for one of the security certifications like CISSP, SSCP, or Security+ you’ll come across intrusion detection systems and intrusion prevention systems. An intrusion detection system can detect and alert on potential intrusions, and an intrusion prevention system goes a step further and can block an attack. There’s a lot of depth to these topics and if you want to take a deep dive into the topics, check out NIST SP 800-94, Guide to Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS). This blog outlines the basics.

Host-based and Network-based

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) and intrusion prevention systems (IPSs) are either host-based (HIDS or HIPS) or network-based (NIDS or NIPS).

  • Host-based. A host-based system is installed on a single computer such as a workstation or server. Its goal is to protect local resources on the host and it can detect attacks or intrusions on this system, but it cannot detect attacks on other systems.
  • Network-based. A network-based system monitors network activity and will include multiple sensors installed on network devices such as routers and firewalls. These sensors report activity back to a central monitoring console. It can detect network-based attacks, but it cannot detect anomalies on individual systems.

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Detection Methods

IDSs and IPSs primarily detect intrusions using one of two methods, knowledge-based or behavior-based.

  • Knowledge-based. This uses a database of known attack patterns and is similar to the signature file used to detect different types of viruses. It is also called signature-based and definition-based. The key is that the intrusion is using a known method that can be recognized. It’s important to keep antivirus definitions up-to-date to detect emerging threats. Likewise, it’s important to keep a knowledge-based IDPS signature file up-to-date.
  • Anomaly-based. Anomaly-based detection starts by creating a baseline of normal behavior. This baseline can take days or even weeks to create and is often called a training period. After the baseline is created, it then monitors activity and can report when activity varies from the baseline. For example, if network bandwidth usage is typically at 50 percent utilization for a specific connection, but increases to 95 percent sustained utilization, it indicates a change from the norm or an anomaly and will raise an alert. If the environment is updated or changed, the baseline needs to be updated.

Another method is known as stateful protocol analysis (also called deep packet inspection). In this method, traffic is examined for suspicious activity based on the protocol. For example, a typical File Transfer Protocol (FTP) session follows a predictable pattern where a user authenticates and then begins issuing commands. However, if the session deviates from the pattern, perhaps with the user issuing commands without authenticating, it may indicate an attack.

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Up-to-date Content

New multiple-choice and performance-based questions added regularly

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Need more time? You can easily renew for another 60 days at a significantly reduced price.

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

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Our online Security+ study materials are the perfect complement to the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. They can also be used to help ensure you're ready no matter what study guide you're using.

This exam is expensive.

Make sure you're ready before exam day. 

Here's what you'll get:
  • All of the multiple-choice questions from the best-selling CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. See a demo here. All questions have full explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.
  • Over 40 new multiple-choice questions we've added after publishing the study guide.
  • Over 30 performance-based questions. See a demo here.
  • All of the flashcards from the study guide. View them in any Web browser.
  • All of the audio from the study guide. Listen to a sample here.
  • Access to a free discount code for 10% off your Security+ voucher.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here


Studying SSCP?
This book covers the new objectives effective Feb 1, 2012.
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner All-in-One Exam Guide

The Second Edition is written specifically for the objectives released in 2015.


False Alarms

Both knowledge-based and anomaly-based systems are susceptible to false alarms (also called false alerts and false positives). In other words, they may report an attack that isn’t actually an attack. The goal of security administrators is to reduce the number of false alarms to a minimum, while also ensuring that actual attacks are reported.

Thresholds are used to set the limit between normal behavior and abnormal behavior that may indicate a potential attack. As an example, consider a TCP SYN flood attack where an attacker sends a SYN packet but not the ACK packet to complete a connection. If this happened once in a ten minute period, it probably isn’t an attack. If it happened one thousand times within a minute, it very likely is an attack. An IDS would use some number between 1 and 1,000 to as the threshold and when that number is reached, it raises an alert.

There isn’t a perfect number for any threshold so administrators seek a balance. If it is set too high, attacks will not be detected. If it is set too low, the IDS won’t be trusted due to the high number of false alarms. Most administrators are willing to accept some false positives if it will ensure they are notified when actual attack occurs.


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Responses

When an IDS or IPS detects a potential intrusion it can respond either passively or actively.

  • Passive. A passive response will log the event and possibly provide a notification. The notification can be an email, text message, or page sent to key personnel, or perhaps a pop-up dialog box on the system.
  • Active. An active response will include the passive capability but will also take action to block the attack. It may terminate a connection or modify the access control list (ACL) on a router or firewall to block the attack.

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Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.

IDS vs IPS

Active intrusion detection systems are often called intrusion prevention systems but this isn’t always the case. The distinguishing difference is that an IPS is placed inline with the traffic. In other words, all traffic to a network passes through an IPS giving the IPS the ability to block malicious traffic. In contrast, an active IDS may be able to block an attack but if it is not placed inline with the traffic, it can only block it after the attack has started.

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DoS, Smurf, and Fraggle Attacks

DoS, Smurf, and Fraggle Attacks

Denial of service (DoS) attacks such as smurf and fraggle attacks are important to understand when studying for any security certification including Security+, SSCP, or CISSP. Smurf and fraggle attacks are similar but they have subtle differences.

DoS Attack

A DoS attack comes from a single entity and is intended to make a computer’s resources or services unavailable to users. DoS attacks against a server prevent the server from responding to legitimate requests from users. A distributed DoS (DDoS) attack comes from multiple attackers at the same time.


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Smurf Attack

A smurf attack uses Internet Control Management Protocol (ICMP) to send a broadcast ping with a spoofed source address. It’s easier to understand this by looking at one step at a time.

  • Normal ping. A regular ping sends one or more ICMP echo requests to a system and the system responds with one or more ICMP echo replies. This provides verification the remote system is operational. A regular ping uses unicast. In other words, the ICMP packet is addressed to one system from one system.
  • Broadcast ping. A broadcast ping is not normal. It sends the ICMP echo request to a broadcast address sending it to virtually all systems on the network. Each system will then respond to the system that sent it flooding this system with ICMP echo replies.
  • Spoofed source broadcast ping. The smurf attack spoofs the source address with the address of the victim, and then sends it out as a broadcast ping. Each system on the network will then respond, and flood the victim with echo replies.

There’s an important point to remember though. Routers do not pass broadcast packets. This was actually a change in RFC 2644 released in 1999 in direct response to smurf attacks and the use of networks as smurf amplifiers. RFC 2644 is an update to RFC 1812 which stated that a router must default to forwarding directed broadcasts. Routers today comply with RFC 2644 so smurf attacks are limited to a broadcast domain. They will not go beyond a router.

With this in mind, it would be rare to see a smurf attack. However, that doesn’t mean it won’t be tested.

Note: Many firewalls block ICMP packets to prevent any type of attack using ICMP. If a ping succeeds, it verifies that the system is operational. However, if a ping fails it doesn’t prove that the system is not operational. ICMP may be blocked preventing the ping.

Security+ Full Access Package

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Pass the First Time!

Up-to-date Content

New multiple-choice and performance-based questions added regularly

Pass the first time with quality practice test questions, performance-based questions, flashcards, and audio.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

Need more time? You can easily renew for another 60 days at a significantly reduced price.

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here

Our online Security+ study materials are the perfect complement to the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. They can also be used to help ensure you're ready no matter what study guide you're using.

This exam is expensive.

Make sure you're ready before exam day. 

Here's what you'll get:
  • All of the multiple-choice questions from the best-selling CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. See a demo here. All questions have full explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.
  • Over 40 new multiple-choice questions we've added after publishing the study guide.
  • Over 30 performance-based questions. See a demo here.
  • All of the flashcards from the study guide. View them in any Web browser.
  • All of the audio from the study guide. Listen to a sample here.
  • Access to a free discount code for 10% off your Security+ voucher.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here


Studying SSCP?
This book covers the new objectives effective Feb 1, 2012.
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner All-in-One Exam Guide


Fraggle Attack

Fraggle attacks are similar to smurf attacks but instead of using ICMP, they use UDP ports 7 and 19.

As described earlier, the ping command uses ICMP and it is used to check if a system is operational. Tools are available that use UDP instead of ICMP and instead of checking to see if a system is operational, they check to see if the system is listening on a specific port. This is commonly done with many different types of vulnerability scanners used by both attackers and security administrators.

Chargen (character generator) is an older protocol described in RFC 864 (dated May 1983). A system listens on either TCP or UDP port 19 (known as the chargen port) for chargen requests. When a connection is established to this port, the system would respond with a constant stream of characters to the original system. Typically the original system would use TCP or UDP port 7 (known as the echo port) but this isn’t required. When the original system begins receiving the characters, it knows the target system is operational, and closes the connection.

In a fraggle attack, a spoofed broadcast packet is sent to port 19. The spoofed address is the address of the victim. Since it is broadcast, it goes to every system on the network. If port 19 is open and the character generator service is running on these systems, they will send a stream of characters to the victim.

Realistically, systems today will not have port 7 open or the chargen service running on port 19. Additionally, routers do not pass broadcasts so any attacks are limited to a single network. Said another way, it is very unlikely you will ever see a fraggle attack today.


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Basic Protection

In addition to ensuring that routers are configured in compliance with RFC 2644 and do not pass broadcasts, there are some other basic steps that protect you from these types of attacks:

  • Disable unnecessary services and protocols. If a service or protocol is not needed on a system, it should not be enabled. I cannot think of a system in use today that would need the chargen service so it should be disabled if it is even available on the system.
  • Close unneeded ports. If a port is not needed, it should be closed on both network-based and host-based firewalls. With the port closed, all traffic is blocked and attacks are stopped.
  • Use ingress filters on firewalls. Don’t allow traffic into a network that shouldn’t be there. A common ingress filter on a boundary firewall (between the Internet and an internal network), blocks all traffic coming from the Internet with a spoofed private IP address.

Master Security+ Performance Based Questions Video

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.

Summary

In summary, DoS attacks such as smurf and fraggle attacks attempt to prevent a system from responding to legitimate requests. A smurf attack sends a broadcast ping with a spoofed IP address (the IP address of the victim), and ping uses ICMP. A fraggle attack uses UDP ports 7 and 19 instead of ICMP, and sends broadcast UDP traffic with a spoofed IP address (the IP address of the victim).

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Three Factors of Authentication and Multifactor Authentication

Factors of Authentication

If you’re studying for one of the security certifications like CISSP, SSCP, or Security+ it’s important to understand the different factors of authentication, and how they can be intertwined as multifactor authentication. These are commonly known as something you know (such as a password), something you have (such as a smart card), and something you are (using biometrics). A basic understanding of these topics can help you correctly answer many different questions on authentication on any of these certification exams.

A previous post covered identification, authentication, and authorization. As a reminder, identification occurs when a user (or any subject) claims an identity. Authentication occurs when the user provides proof of the identity, such as with a password. Authorization grants access to resources based on the user’s proven identity.


Pass the Security+ exam the first time you take it.
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide


Something You Know

The something you know factor includes passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs). This is considered the weakest form of authentication because users often use weak passwords, give them out, or write their passwords down.

A strong password is complex and includes at least eight characters. Complex means that the password uses a mixture of upper case, lower case, numbers, and special characters. Some documentation indicates using three of the four character types is enough, while other documentation states that a complex password has four character types. The key is that more character types results in a more complex password that is harder to crack. However, the bigger point is that many users create passwords with only a single character type.

Troy Hunt did a great analysis of passwords that were stolen from Sony’s web sites and published on the Internet. He found that half used only a single character type and only 1 percent used any non-alphanumeric characters. Some of the top passwords were very simple: seinfeld, password, winner, 123456, purple, sweeps, contest, princess, maggie, and abc123. More than 64 percent of the passwords were found in common password-cracking dictionaries. Additionally, when users had accounts on two separate Sony sites, over 92 percent of them used the same password.

Password policies are often used to ensure that users create strong passwords and change them often. Some common password policy settings are:

  • Maximum password age. Requires users to change their password.
  • Minimum length. Ensures passwords have a minimum number of characters.
  • History. Remembers specific number of past passwords (such as last 5, or last 24 passwords). Prevents users from reusing the same passwords.
  • Minimum password page. Prevents users from changing their password right away. Used with the password history to prevent users from changing their password multiple times to circumvent the password history.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.


Looking for quality Practice Test Questions for the SY0-401 Security+ exam?
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead- SY0-401 Practice Test Questions


Something You Have

Smart cards and token, or fobs are common examples within the something you have factor of authentication. A smart card is a credit card sized card that holds key information about the user. Smart cards have certificates embedded in them using TLS and provide very strong authentication. This blog covers the differences between smart cards, a common access card (CAC), and a personal identity verification (PIV) card.

A fob (sometimes called a token) has an LED display that shows a number that changes regularly, such as every 60 seconds. This number is synchronized with a server. When users log into a website, they enter the number shown on the display to verify they have the token. This factor is often combined with another factor to provide multifactor authentication.


Studying SSCP?
This book covers the new objectives effective Feb 1, 2012.
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner All-in-One Exam Guide


Something You Are

The something you are factor uses biometrics to prove a user’s identity. Fingerprints are very commonly used for authentication, but there are many other examples. Biometrics are often divided into two categories: physical biometrics and behavioral biometrics.

  • Physical biometrics are based on physical traits of an individual. It includes fingerprints, thumbprints, handprints, palms retina scanners, and iris scanners.
  • Behavioral biometrics is based on behavioral traits of an individual. It includes voice recognition, signature geometry, and key strokes on a keyboard.

Biometrics systems are susceptible to false readings. These are commonly known as:

  • Type 1 error. False Reject Rate (FRR). This occurs when a biometric system incorrectly rejects an authorized user.
  • Type 2 error. False Accept Rate (FAR). This occurs when a biometric system incorrectly identifies an unauthorized user as an authorized user.

Most biometric systems allow you to adjust the sensitivity of the system. For example, you can adjust it to minimize false rejections (FRR errors) but this will result in an increase in the false acceptances (FAR errors). The overall accuracy of a biometric system is identified with the crossover error rate (CER), where the FAR and FRR are equal. A biometric system with a lower CER is more accurate than one with a higher CER.



Multifactor Authentication

Multifactor authentication combines two or three of the factors. Two common examples are:

  • A user has a smart card and also uses a personal identification number (PIN)
  • A user has a token and also enters a username and password

It’s important to realize that multiple authentication and multifactor authentication are not the same thing. For example, if a user enters a pin (in the something you know factor), and a password (also in the something you know factor), this is not multifactor authentication.

Security+ Full Access Package

Get Certified Get Ahead Security+

Pass the First Time!

Up-to-date Content

New multiple-choice and performance-based questions added regularly

Pass the first time with quality practice test questions, performance-based questions, flashcards, and audio.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

Need more time? You can easily renew for another 60 days at a significantly reduced price.

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here

Our online Security+ study materials are the perfect complement to the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. They can also be used to help ensure you're ready no matter what study guide you're using.

This exam is expensive.

Make sure you're ready before exam day. 

Here's what you'll get:
  • All of the multiple-choice questions from the best-selling CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. See a demo here. All questions have full explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.
  • Over 40 new multiple-choice questions we've added after publishing the study guide.
  • Over 30 performance-based questions. See a demo here.
  • All of the flashcards from the study guide. View them in any Web browser.
  • All of the audio from the study guide. Listen to a sample here.
  • Access to a free discount code for 10% off your Security+ voucher.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here


CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Read More

Identification, Authentication, and Authorization

Identification, Authentication, and Authorization

If you’re studying for one of the security certifications like CISSP, SSCP, or Security+ it’s important to understand the difference between identification, authentication, and authorization. These concepts are intertwined, but have specific differences. When looking at these topics, especially for the SSCP and CISSP exams, it’s important to understand the differences between subjects and objects.

  • Subject. A subject is the active entity that accesses an object. For example, when a user accesses a file, the user is the subject. Other subjects include programs, processes, and any entity that can access a resource.
  • Object. An object is a passive entity that is being accessed by a subject. For example, when a user accesses a file, the file is the object. Other objects include databases, computers, printers, or any other resource that can be accessed by a subject.

Pass the Security+ exam the first time you take it.
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide


Identification

Identification occurs when a user (or any subject) claims or professes an identity. This can be accomplished with a username, a process ID, a smart card, or anything else that can uniquely identify a subject. Security systems use this identity when determining if a subject can access an object.

Security+ Full Access Package

Get Certified Get Ahead Security+

Pass the First Time!

Up-to-date Content

New multiple-choice and performance-based questions added regularly

Pass the first time with quality practice test questions, performance-based questions, flashcards, and audio.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

Need more time? You can easily renew for another 60 days at a significantly reduced price.

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here

Our online Security+ study materials are the perfect complement to the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. They can also be used to help ensure you're ready no matter what study guide you're using.

This exam is expensive.

Make sure you're ready before exam day. 

Here's what you'll get:
  • All of the multiple-choice questions from the best-selling CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. See a demo here. All questions have full explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.
  • Over 40 new multiple-choice questions we've added after publishing the study guide.
  • Over 30 performance-based questions. See a demo here.
  • All of the flashcards from the study guide. View them in any Web browser.
  • All of the audio from the study guide. Listen to a sample here.
  • Access to a free discount code for 10% off your Security+ voucher.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here


Looking for quality Practice Test Questions for the SY0-401 Security+ exam?
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead- SY0-401 Practice Test Questions


Authentication

Authentication is the process of proving an identity and it occurs when subjects provide appropriate credentials to prove their identity. For example, when a user provides the correct password with a username, the password proves that the user is the owner of the username. In short, the authentication provides proof of a claimed identity.

There are several methods of authentication that I’ll cover in another post, but in short they are:

  • Something you know, such as a password or PIN
  • Something you have, such as a smart card, CAC, PIV, or RSA token
  • Something you are, using biometrics

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.


Studying SSCP?
This book covers the new objectives effective Feb 1, 2012.
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner All-in-One Exam Guide


Authorization

Once a user is identified and authenticated, they can be granted authorization based on their proven identity. It’s important to point out that you can’t have separate authorization without identification and authentication. In other words, if everyone logs on with the same account you can grant access to resources for everyone, or block access to resources for everyone. If everyone uses the same account, you can’t differentiate between users. However, when users have been authenticated with different user accounts, they can be granted access to different resources based on their identity.

In summary, it’s important to understand the differences between identification, authentication, and authorization when studying for security exams such as the Security+, SSCP, or CISSP exams. Identification occurs when a subject claims an identity (such as with a username) and authentication occurs when a subject proves their identity (such as with a password). Once the subject has a proven identity, authorization techniques can grant or block access to objects based on their proven identities.

Master Security+ Performance Based Questions Video

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Single Sign-On (SSO) and Federated Identity Management

Federated Identity Management

If you’re studying for one of the security certifications such as CISSP, SSCP, or Security+ it’s important to understand single sign-on (SSO) concepts and federated access.

SSO refers to the ability of a user to log on or access multiple systems by providing credentials only once. It enhances security by requiring users to use and remember only one set of credentials for authentication. Once signed on using SSO, this one set of credentials is used throughout a user’s entire session.


Pass the Security+ exam the first time you take it.
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide


Kerberos

Kerberos is an authentication protocol commonly used to help support SSO in many networks. When users authenticate, a Key Distribution Center (KDC) issues the user an encrypted time-stamped ticket-granting ticket (TGT). The TGT is cached on the user’s system and normally has a lifetime of 10 hours but can be renewed. Kerberos uses symmetric cryptography to encrypt tickets and in most current implementations it uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The KDC is also referred to as an authentication server (AS) or sometimes as a Kerberos authentication server (KAS).

When the user later wants to access a resource such as a file on a server, the user’s system submits the TGT with a request to access the resource. The KDC validates the TGT and sends the user a ticket (sometimes called a service ticket) for the resource. The user’s system then submits this ticket to the host of the resource (in this case the file server) with a request to access the resource. The host checks with the KDC to ensure that the ticket is valid and if so, allows access as long as the user is authorized.

Kerberos requires all systems to be time synchronized and the default in version 5 is for all systems to be within five minutes of each other. If a system is more than five minutes off, the KDC won’t issue a TGT or any other tickets, effectively blocking all non-anonymous access on a network. It uses a database of credentials to authenticate users and uses port 88 by default.

A drawback with Kerberos is that it represents a single point of failure. If the KDC fails, all authentication stops. Additionally, if the KDC is compromised, all credentials are compromised.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SY0-501 Practice Test Questions 

Over 300 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 75 random questions. View 75 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 75 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of SY0-501 Practice Test Questions Here

 SY0-501 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Three sets of performance-based questions including over 30 questions. These questions show you what you can expect in the live exam. They include drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions. See a demo here.

Bonus - Extra Practice Test Questions

New multiple-choice questions in the extra test bank. Questions are added occasionally. You can see what has been added recently here.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-501) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SY0-501 Full Study Package

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.


Studying SSCP? This book covers the new objectives effective Feb 1, 2012.
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner All-in-One Exam Guide


SSO and Federated Identity Management

Identity management refers to the management of user identities and their credentials. For example, usernames and passwords are stored in a database that can be accessed by Kerberos to authenticate users. Users claim an identity and prove their identity by authenticating, such as with a password. In federated identity management, organizations join a group of organizations called a federation. All the organizations within the federation agree on a method to share identities between the organizations.

Once the federation is configured, users are able to log on one time within their organization and then access resources in other organizations without logging on again. This is usually transparent to the user.

As an example, I have worked in an organization where we logged on with smart cards. We had access to training sites hosted by other organizations but part of a federated identity management system. All we had to do was access the web site using a web browser, and our credentials were automatically recognized without requiring us to take any additional steps.

One of the biggest challenges is being able to share identity information between organizations in the federation. A common way this is done is with the Service Provisioning Markup Language (SPML). SPML is an extension of Extensible Markup Language (XML) which is used to describe data.

In summary, SSO methods can increase security by reducing the number of passwords users must remember. Federated access allows an organization to share identities between different organizations in a common group, or federation of organizations.

Master Security+ Performance Based Questions Video

Security+ Full Access Package

Get Certified Get Ahead Security+

Pass the First Time!

Up-to-date Content

New multiple-choice and performance-based questions added regularly

Pass the first time with quality practice test questions, performance-based questions, flashcards, and audio.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

Need more time? You can easily renew for another 60 days at a significantly reduced price.

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here

Our online Security+ study materials are the perfect complement to the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. They can also be used to help ensure you're ready no matter what study guide you're using.

This exam is expensive.

Make sure you're ready before exam day. 

Here's what you'll get:
  • All of the multiple-choice questions from the best-selling CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide. See a demo here. All questions have full explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.
  • Over 40 new multiple-choice questions we've added after publishing the study guide.
  • Over 30 performance-based questions. See a demo here.
  • All of the flashcards from the study guide. View them in any Web browser.
  • All of the audio from the study guide. Listen to a sample here.
  • Access to a free discount code for 10% off your Security+ voucher.

Buy The Full Access Study Package Today

60 Days Access For Only $65.97

All materials are available online shortly after making your payment.

Get the Security+ Full Access Study Package Here

Read More
CompTIA Security+ Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

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