Understanding Networking Protocols

Posted by in Security+ | 0 comments

Networking protocols provide the rules needed for computers to communicate with each other on a network. Some of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols, such as TCP and IP, provide basic connectivity. If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of many of the different protocols and networking devices that have a relevance to security.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. While reviewing logs on a firewall, you see several requests for the AAAA record of  gcgapremium.com. What is the purpose of this request?

A. To identify the IPv4 address of gcgapremium.com

B. To identify the IPv6 address of gcgapremium.com

C. To identify the mail server for gcgapremium.com

D. To identify any aliases used by gcgapremium.com

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Common TCP/IP Protocols

TCP/IP isn’t a single protocol, but a full suite of protocols. If any of these protocols are completely new to you, you might want to do some additional research to ensure you understand the basics. These groups of protocols include:

  • Basic connectivity protocols (TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, ARP, NDP)
  • Encryption protocols (SSH, SCP, SSL, TLS, IPsec)
  • Application protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, FTPS, TFTP)
  • Email protocols (SMTP, POP3, IMAP4)

Understanding Networking Protocols

IPv4

IPv4 uses 32-bit IP addresses expressed in dotted decimal format. For example, the IPv4 IP address of 192.168.1.5 is four decimals separated by periods or dots. You can also express the address in binary form with 32 bits.

All Internet IP addresses are public IP addresses, and internal networks use private IP addresses. Public IP addresses are tightly controlled. You can’t just use any public IP address. Instead, you must either purchase or rent it. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) purchase entire ranges of IP addresses and issue them to customers. If you access the Internet from home, you are very likely receiving a public IP address from an ISP.

Routers on the Internet include rules to drop any traffic that is coming from or going to a private IP address, so you cannot use private IP addresses on the Internet. RFC 1918 specifies the following private address ranges:

  • 10.x.y.z. 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
  • 172.16.y.z–172.31.y.z. 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
  • 192.168.y.z. 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

IPv6

Although the number of IP addresses at first seemed inexhaustible, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigned the last block of IPv4 addresses in February 2011. To prepare, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created IPv6, which provides a significantly larger address space than IPv4.

IPv6 supports a significantly larger address space than IPv4 with over 340 undecillion IP addresses. For context, the order is billion, trillion, quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion, nonillion, decillion, and undecillion. Everyone will have enough addresses to assign IP addresses to their computers, TVs, mobile phones, refrigerators, coffeemakers, toasters, and anything else they might want to control remotely.

IPv6 uses 128-bit IP addresses expressed in hexadecimal format. For example, the IPv6 IP address of fe80:0000:0000:0000:02d4:3ff7:003f:de62 includes eight groups of four hexadecimal characters, separated by colons. Each hexadecimal character is composed of four bits.

Get Certified Get Ahead

You can simplify IPv6 addresses by omitting leading zeroes in any group of hexadecimal characters, and with zero compression. The IPv6 address looks like this with these two rules:

  • Omit leading zeroes: fe80:0:0:0:2d4:3ff7:3f:de62
  • Zero compression: fe80::02d4:3ff7:003f:de62
  • Both rules: fe80::2d4:3ff7:3f:de62

The first example omits leading zeroes in five of the groups. Because you know that each group includes four characters, you know that any group with less than four characters is missing the leading zeroes. For example, :2d4 actually represents :02d4.

Zero compression substitutes a string of zeroes with two colons (::). For example, fe80::02d4:3ff7:003f:de62 is the same as fe80:0000:0000:0000:02d4:3ff7:003f:de62. You can only use one double colon in an IPv6 address.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Another benefit of IPv6 over IPv4 is that it has more security built in. For example, the tunneling services provided by IPsec are built in to IPv6 and work natively with it. This allows you to encrypt just about any data in transit relatively easily, including older legacy protocols such as Telnet.

In contrast, IPsec isn’t native to IPv4 and it has some compatibility issues. For example, when IPsec passes through a device using Network Address Translation (NAT), NAT breaks IPsec. Although there are ways to work around the issues, IPv6 doesn’t have the same problems.

DNS, IPv4, and IPv6

Domain Name System (DNS) uses some different records for IPv6. As an example, DNS IPv4 uses A records (also called a host record) to map the host name to an IPv4 address. In contrast, IPv6 uses an AAAA record to map the host name to an IPv6 address. The Configuring DNS Servers blog post has more information some DNS records.

Remember this

IPv6 has a significantly larger address space than IPv4. IPsec is built in to IPv6 and can encrypt any type of IPv6 traffic.


 

Q. While reviewing logs on a firewall, you see several requests for the AAAA record of gcgapremium.com. What is the purpose of this request?

A. To identify the IPv4 address of gcgapremium.com

B. To identify the IPv6 address of gcgapremium.com

C. To identify the mail server for gcgapremium.com

D. To identify any aliases used by gcgapremium.com

Answer is B. A Domain Name System (DNS) AAAA record identifies the IPv6 address of a given name.

An A record identifies the IPv4 address of a given name.

An MX record identifies a mail server.

A CNAME record identifies aliases.

See Chapter 3 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information on basic network security.

You  might like to view these blog posts related to protocols:

Basic Connectivity Protocols

Encryption Protocols

Email Protocols

Leave a Comment

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

Join our mailing list and get a free excerpt of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide.  This excerpt includes the introduction and Chapter 1. 

You have Successfully Subscribed!

Get Certified Get Ahead is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program,
an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com.

Copyright © 2015 Get Certified Get Ahead. All Rights Reserved.