Redundancy and Patching

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Do you know the differences between redundancy and patching as methods of ensuring system availability? You should if you plan to take the Security+ exam. This post should help.

Here’s a sample question:

Q. Your organization recently implemented two servers that act as failover devices for each other. Which security goal is your organization pursuing?

A. Safety

B. Integrity

C. Confidentiality

D. Availability

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

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CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

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  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
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  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
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Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

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Availability indicates that data and services are available when needed. For some organizations, this simply means that the data and services must be available between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. For other organizations, this means they must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.

Organizations commonly implement redundancy and fault-tolerant methods to ensure high levels of availability for key systems. Additionally, organizations ensure systems stay up to date with current patches to ensure that software bugs don’t affect their availability.

Redundancy and Patching

Redundancy and Fault Tolerance

Redundancy adds duplication to critical systems and provides fault tolerance. If a critical component has a fault, the duplication provided by the redundancy allows the service to continue without interruption. In other words, a system with fault tolerance can suffer a fault, but tolerate it and continue to operate.

A common goal of fault tolerance and redundancy techniques is to remove each single point of failure (SPOF). If an SPOF fails, the entire system can fail. For example, if a server has a single drive, the drive is an SPOF because its failure takes down the server.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

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If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

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Here are some common examples of fault-tolerance and redundancy techniques:

  • Disk redundancies. Fault-tolerant disks such as RAID-1, RAID-5, and RAID-6 allow a system to continue to operate even if a disk fails.
  • Server redundancies. Failover clusters include redundant servers and ensure a service will continue to operate, even if a server fails. In a failover cluster, the service switches from the failed server in a cluster to an operational server in the same cluster. Virtualization can also increase availability of servers by reducing unplanned downtime.
  • Load balancing. Load balancing uses multiple servers to support a single service, such as a high-volume website. It can increase the availability of websites and web-based applications.
  • Site redundancies. If a site can no longer function due to a disaster, such as a fire, flood, hurricane, or earthquake, the organization can move critical systems to an alternate site. The alternate site can be a hot site (ready and available 24/7), a cold site (a location where equipment, data, and personnel can be moved to when needed), or a warm site (a compromise between a hot site and cold site).
  • Backups. If personnel back up important data, they can restore it if the original data is lost. Data can be lost due to corruption, deletion, application errors, human error, and even hungry gremlins that just randomly decide to eat your data. Without data backups, data is lost forever after any one of these incidents.
  • Alternate power. Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and power generators can provide power to key systems even if commercial power fails.
  • Cooling systems. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems improve the availability of systems by reducing outages from overheating.

Remember this

Availability ensures that systems are up and operational when needed and often addresses single points of failure. You can increase availability by adding fault tolerance and redundancies, such as RAID, failover clusters, backups, and generators. HVAC systems also increase availability.

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Patching

Another method of ensuring systems stay available is with patching. Software bugs cause a wide range of problems, including security issues and even random crashes. When software vendors discover the bugs, they develop and release code that patches or resolves these problems. Organizations commonly implement patch management programs to ensure that systems stay up to date with current patches. Chapter 5 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide covers patching and patch management in greater depth.


 

Security+ Practice Test Questions

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Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

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Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
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INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Q. Your organization recently implemented two servers that act as failover devices for each other. Which security goal is your organization pursuing?

A. Safety

B. Integrity

C. Confidentiality

D. Availability

Answer is D. Your organization is pursuing availability. A failover cluster uses redundant servers to ensure a service will continue to operate even if one of the servers fail.

Safety methods provide safety for personnel and other assets.

Integrity methods ensure that data has not been modified.

Confidentiality methods such as encryption prevent the unauthorized disclosure of data.

See Chapter 1 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information on core security goals.

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