Implementing Basic Forensic Procedures

Computer forensics analyzes evidence from computers to determine details on computer incidents, similar to how CSI personnel analyze evidence from crime scenes. It uses a variety of different tools to gather and analyze computer evidence. If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should you should know about some of the basic concepts related to forensic procedures.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. Security personnel confiscated a user’s workstation after a security incident. Administrators removed the hard drive for forensic analysis, but left it unattended for several hours before capturing an image. What could prevent the company from taking the employee to court over this incident?

A. Witnesses were not identified.

B. A chain of custody was not maintained.

C. An order of volatility was not maintained.

D. A hard drive analysis was not complete.

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

Order of Volatility

Order of volatility refers to the order in which you should collect evidence. Volatile doesn’t mean it’s explosive, but rather that it is not permanent. In general, you should collect evidence starting with the most volatile and moving to the least volatile.

For example, random access memory (RAM) is lost after powering down a computer. Because of this, it is important to realize you shouldn’t power a computer down if it’s suspected to be involved in a security incident.

A processor can only work on data in RAM, so all the data in RAM indicates what the system was doing. This includes data users have been working on, system processes, network processes, application remnants, and much more. All of this can be valuable evidence in an investigation, but if a rookie technician turns the computer off, the evidence is lost.

Implementing Basic Forensic Procedures

Many forensic tools include the ability to capture volatile data. Once it’s captured, experts can analyze it and gain insight into what the computer and user were doing.

In contrast, data on disks remains on the drive even after powering a system down. This includes any files and even low-level data such as the Master Boot Record on a disk. However, it’s important to protect the data on the disk before analyzing it, and a common method is by capturing an image of the disk.

The order of volatility from most volatile to least volatile is:

  • Data in cache memory, including the processor cache and hard drive cache
  • Data in RAM, including system and network processes
  • Swap file or paging file on the system disk drive
  • Data stored on local disk drives
  • Logs stored on remote systems
  • Archive media

In case you don’t remember from your CompTIA A+ days, the swap file is an extension of RAM and it is stored on the hard drive. However, the swap file isn’t a typical file and it’s rebuilt when the system is rebooted, making it more volatile than other files stored on hard drives.

Remember this

When collecting data for a forensic analysis, you should collect it from the most volatile to the least volatile. The order of volatility is cache memory, regular RAM, swap or paging file, hard drive data, logs stored on remote systems, and archived media.

Witnesses

Another element of an investigation is interviewing witnesses. Witnesses provide firsthand reports of what happened and when it happened. However, witnesses won’t necessarily come forward with relevant information unless someone asks them. Often witnesses don’t recognize what information is valuable.

For example, imagine an attacker who tailgated behind an employee without showing credentials. The employee may notice, but not give it much thought, especially if tailgating is common in the organization. If the attack resulted in loss of equipment or data, an investigator may get a good description of the attacker just by interviewing witnesses.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Track Man-Hours and Expense

Investigations can take an extraordinary amount of time, and for any business, time is money. When budget time rolls around, the departments that can accurately identify how much time and money they spent are more likely to get their requested budget approved.

Additionally, quantitative risk assessments base decisions using specific monetary amounts, such as cost and asset values. If an incident required involvement by security professionals on an incident response team, the man-hours and expenses incurred by the incident response team need to be included in the assessment. Including this data improves the accuracy of the cost values used in the quantitative risk assessment.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Big Data Analysis

Big Data is a relatively new term and refers to databases that are so large that tools don’t exist to extract meaningful information from them. It’s worth stressing that Big Data is really big. It’s so big that analysts are currently trying to figure out what to name the next iteration. Currently, yottabyte is the largest name and it refers to 1,000 zetabytes. For the record, the order is gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte, exabyte, zettabyte, and then yottabyte. The next name might be hellabyte, using northern California slang of “hella” meaning “a lot.” Seriously. This is one of the names proposed to the International System of Units.

Because tools don’t exist to mine this data, analysts must develop tools for specific needs. As an example, SAS Institute developed tools for Macy’s Inc. to adjust online pricing for 73 million products based on demand and inventory.

Similarly, forensic specialists often must develop tools to analyze Big Data during forensic investigations. Specialists who understand Big Data and can develop tools to analyze it will become more and more valuable as time goes forward. However, they must be able to develop tools that are reliable and provide consistent results. Similarly, the tools must generate the same results each time they are used against the same data, and be able to preserve the evidence. Clearly, analyzing Big Data brings significant new challenges. For example, it’s not a simple matter to create an image of a database as big as a hellabyte.


Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Q. Security personnel confiscated a user’s workstation after a security incident. Administrators removed the hard drive for forensic analysis, but left it unattended for several hours before capturing an image. What could prevent the company from taking the employee to court over this incident?

A. Witnesses were not identified.

B. A chain of custody was not maintained.

C. An order of volatility was not maintained.

D. A hard drive analysis was not complete.

Answer is B. A chain of custody was not maintained because the hard drive was left unattended for several hours before capturing an image.

Witnesses were not mentioned, but are not needed if the chain of custody was maintained.

The order of volatility does not apply here, but the hard drive is not volatile.

Analysis would occur after capturing an image, but there isn’t any indication it wasn’t done or wasn’t complete.

See Chapter 11 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information on operational security.

You might like to review the Implementing Chain of Custody blog post.

Read More

Mobile Device Security Methods

If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of mobile device security methods available to reduce risks associated with mobile devices.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. Your company provides electrical and plumbing services to homeowners. Employees use tablets during service calls to record activity, create invoices, and accept credit card payments. Which of the following would BEST prevent disclosure of customer data if any of these devices are lost or stolen?

A. Mobile device management

B. Disabling unused features

C. Remote wiping

D. GPS tracking

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Securing Mobile Devices

Mobile devices are smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers. Because they are mobile, they are more susceptible to some threats such as theft, and data security is one of the primary concerns with mobile devices.

There are many methods available to reduce risks associated with mobile devices. Some methods focus on securing the device, while others focus on application security.

Mobile Device Security Methods

Some general security concepts include:

  • Encryption. Encryption protects against loss of confidentiality on multiple platforms, including workstations, servers, mobile devices, and data transmissions. Encryption methods such as full device encryption provide device security, application security, and data security.
  • Authentication and device access control. Authentication methods such as usernames and passwords ensure only authorized personnel can access devices. Laptops support multifactor authentication, which is especially useful when the laptop includes valuable data. Smartphones and tablets typically have short passcodes, but users can be forced to use more secure authentication methods when they access the organization’s network.
  • Device access control. Authentication methods protect access to devices. Without proper authentication methods, attackers can bypass device access controls.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Mobile Device Security Concepts

The primary scenario that concerns mobile device users and administrators is loss or theft of a device. For example, if a thief steals Homer’s smartphone or tablet, Homer will have two primary concerns. He’ll want to locate the device and prevent the thief from accessing any data on the device. Several tools address both of these concerns.

Here are some device security concepts and concerns:

  • Removable storage. USB thumb drives and other removable storage devices are a source of data leakage and malware distribution so security policies often restrict the use of USB thumb drives and other portable devices such as music players. Disabling removable storage capabilities makes it more difficult for users to copy data to and from the devices and protects them from malware. When using external USB hard drives, encryption can be effective at protecting the confidentiality of the data. However, it’s important to use strong access controls to ensure attackers cannot bypass the encryption and access the data.
  • Storage segmentation. In some mobile devices, it’s possible to segment storage of data. For example, users might be required to use external storage for any corporate data to reduce the risk of data loss if the device is lost or stolen.

Get Certified Get Ahead

  • Remote wiping. This is similar to the Erase iPad feature. It sends a remote signal to the device to wipe or erase all the data. Remote wipe capabilities are useful if the phone is lost. The owner can send a remote wipe signal to the phone to delete all the data on the phone. This also deletes any cached data, such as cached online banking passwords, and provides a complete sanitization of the device by removing all valuable data.
  • Disabling unused features. Basic hardening practices for desktop and server systems apply to mobile devices, too. If ports and protocols aren’t needed, they should be disabled or removed. Similarly, if mobile devices have any features that are not needed, they should be disabled. A side benefit of disabling unused features is that it reduces the drain on the battery and helps the battery to last longer.

Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

Q. Your company provides electrical and plumbing services to homeowners. Employees use tablets during service calls to record activity, create invoices, and accept credit card payments. Which of the following would BEST prevent disclosure of customer data if any of these devices are lost or stolen?

A. Mobile device management

B. Disabling unused features

C. Remote wiping

D. GPS tracking

Answer is C. Remote wiping sends a signal to a device and erases all data, which would prevent disclosure of customer data.

Mobile device management helps ensure devices are kept up to date with current patches.

Disabling unused features is a basic hardening step for mobile devices, but doesn’t help if the device is lost.

Global positioning system (GPS) tracking helps locate the device, but doesn’t necessarily prevent data disclosure if the device cannot be retrieved.

See Chapter 5 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information on securing mobile devices.

Read More

Active VS Passive IDS Responses

An IDS can only detect an attack. It will respond after detecting an attack, and IDS responses can be either passive or active. If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of appropriate tools and techniques to discover security threats and vulnerabilities.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. A security company wants to gather intelligence about current methods attackers are using against its clients. What can it use?

A. Vulnerability scan

B. Honeynet

C. MAC address filtering

D. Evil twin

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Get Certified Get Ahead

IDS Responses

An IDS will respond after detecting an attack, and the response can be either passive or active. A passive response primarily consists of logging and notifying personnel, whereas an active response also changes the environment to block the attack:

  • Passive IDS. A passive IDS logs the attack and may also raise an alert to notify someone. Most IDSs are passive by default. The notification can come in many forms, including an email, a text message, a pop-up window, or a notification on a central monitor.
  • Active IDS. An active IDS logs and notifies personnel just as a passive IDS does, but it can also change the environment to thwart or block the attack. For example, it can modify access control lists (ACLs) on firewalls to block offending traffic, close processes on a system that were caused by the attack, or divert the attack to a safe environment, such as a honeynet or honeypot.

Active VS Passive IDS Responses

Remember this

Honeypots and honeynets attempt to divert attackers from live networks. They give security personnel an opportunity to observe current methodologies used in attacks, and gather intelligence on these attacks.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Counterattacks

An active response IDS would rarely perform a counterattack against the attacker. Some network security professionals specialize in attacks or counterattacks, but regular administrators should avoid them.

Consider basic human nature. If one person bumps into another in a crowd, the second person could simply ignore it or give a smile and a nod indicating “no problem,” and the event is over. On the other hand, if the response is an aggressive push accompanied by some loud words, the event escalates. It can turn ugly quickly. Now, compare this to some basic facts about attackers today:

  • Attackers are dedicated. Attackers aren’t just bored teenagers passing their time away like Matthew Broderick in the movie War Games. Most attackers today are dedicated criminals working in a semiskilled profession. This is similar to a seasoned car thief with specific skills to break into and steal cars. They are often very good at what they do. Attackers’ skills steadily increase, and their tools are becoming more and more sophisticated.
  • Attackers have unlimited time. Attackers usually have the luxury of spending 100 percent of their time on attack strategies and methodologies. Compare this with network administrators, who have a host of other duties and rarely can spend 100 percent of their time on security.

Many administrators certainly have the expertise to investigate an attack, trace an IP address back, and launch a counterattack. However, just because you can doesn’t mean you should. The attacker will likely detect the counterattack and escalate the attack. Instead of moving on from your network, the attacker might take your attack personally and consider it a lifelong mission to cripple your network.

It’s also highly likely that the attacking IP address is not the actual attacker. Very often, attackers hijack the machines of unwitting users and launch attacks from their systems. If you counterattack, you could be attacking the wrong computer.


Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

Q. A security company wants to gather intelligence about current methods attackers are using against its clients. What can it use?

A. Vulnerability scan

B. Honeynet

C. MAC address filtering

D. Evil twin

Answer is B. A honeynet is a fake network designed to look valuable to attackers and can help security personnel learn about current attack methods. In this scenario, the security company can install honeynets in its customers’ networks to lure the attackers.

A vulnerability scan detects vulnerabilities, but attackers may not try to exploit them.

Media access control (MAC) address filtering is a form of network access control, but can’t be used to detect or learn about attacks.

An evil twin is a rogue access point with the same SSID as an authorized access point.

See Chapter 4 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information securing network.

Read More

Beware Hurricane Related Scams

Beware of scammers that target both disaster victims and potential donors. US-CERT warns users to be watchful for various malicious cyber activity designed to take advantage of people after disasters.

As an example, you should exercise caution when handling emails related to recent hurricanes, even if those emails appear to originate from trusted sources. Disaster-related phishing emails may trick users into sharing sensitive information, contain malicious attachments, or links to malware-infected websites.

Additionally, you should be wary of social media pleas, calls, texts, or door-to-door solicitations relating to the recent hurricanes.

Hurricane Harvey

Hurricane Harvey traveled across the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico from August 13 through August 26. It caused at least 70 deaths and was estimated to be the second-costliest natural disaster in U. S. history. At the time, Hurricane Katrina (2005) was considered the costliest at about $175 billion.

Many homeowners suffered catastrophic losses. Regular homeowner insurance policies exclude coverage for flooding and homeowners within a 100-year flood plain are encouraged to purchase flood insurance from the National Flood Insurance Program. Experts estimate that only 15% of the homes in Houston had flood insurance when Harvey hit.

Hurricane Irma

Hurricane Irma traveled across the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico starting on August 30. It caused catastrophic damage to a string of islands including Barbuda,  Saint, Martin, and the Virgin Islands as a Category 5 Hurricane. Waves in Puerto Rico reached 30 feet high. It destroyed the communications infrastructure on the Turks and Caicos Islands. It hit the northern coast of Cuba with sustained windows of 160 mph damaging hospitals, factories, and warehouses.

Irma hit Cudjoe Key (about 20 miles from Key West) on September 10th with an estimated 10 foot storm surge, which is catastrophic considering Cudjoe Key has an elevation of zero feet (even with sea level). It hit Marco Island in Florida later that day and traveled up the west coast of Florida causing significant damage on both coasts of Florida, along with everything in between. The following graphic shows Irma’s huge size compared to the relevant narrow peninsula of Florida. More than 5.5 million people are without power.

As I write this, Irma is traveling north and is expected to impact Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, and Tennessee.

Gratefully, scientific weather models predicted Irma’s path giving officials a heads up on her path. This, combined with the images we saw from Hurricane Harvey allowed millions to evacuate and saved many lives.

Beware of Scammers

Over the next few days and weeks, we’ll learn the full impact of Irma. We’ll learn how many homes and businesses were destroyed. We’ll learn how many people are left homeless. We’ll learn the estimated amount of destruction and cost to rebuild the destroyed areas.

And we’ll be bombarded with invitations to donate. If you can, by all means do so. However, take some basic steps to ensure your money goes to help the victims and doesn’t add to a criminal’s bank account.

To avoid becoming victims of fraudulent activity, US-CERT recommends that you consider taking the following preventive measures:

Another important point is that many people are duped into believing the scammer’s pleas and help these criminals by sharing or forwarding the scams via social media sites.

Criminals love these ill-informed helpers. Don’t be one.

 

IT Professionals with basic knowledge of malware and phishing scams already know most of this information. This is one of the reasons so many companies value employees with basic cybersecurity knowledge validated with certifications such as Security+.

If you have this knowledge but know others that might still be in the dark, share it with them.

Read More

Comparing Protocol IDs and Ports

Ports and protocol identifiers (protocol IDs) are not the same thing, though they are often confused. If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of all relevant protocols and ports and know the difference between a port and a protocol ID.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. You need to enable the use of NetBIOS through a firewall. Which ports should you open?

A. 137 through 139

B. 20 and 21

C. 80 and 443

D. 22 and 3389

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Protocol IDs and Ports

Ports and protocol identifiers (protocol IDs) are not the same thing, though they are often confused. Well-known ports identify many services or protocols.

However, many protocols aren’t identified by the port, but instead by the protocol ID. For example, within IPsec, protocol ID 50 indicates the packet is an Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) packet, and protocol ID 51 indicates it’s an Authentication Header (AH) packet. Similarly, ICMP has a protocol ID of 1, TCP is 6, and UDP is 17.

You can use a protocol ID to block or allow traffic on routers and firewalls just as you can block or allow traffic based on the port. Note that it isn’t accurate to say that you can allow IPsec ESP traffic by opening port 50. IANA lists port 50 as a Remote Mail Checking Protocol. However, you can allow IPsec traffic by allowing traffic using protocol ID 50.

Protocol analyzers can capture and examine IP headers to determine the protocol ID and the port, as well as read any unencrypted data.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Memorize These Ports

There are 1,024 well-known ports, but you don’t need to know them all. However, at a minimum, you should know the ports listed in the table. It lists all of the ports specifically mentioned in the CompTIA objectives along with several others you should know when preparing for the exam. Some of these ports are outside the well-known ports range. However, you can use this table as a single source to memorize all of the relevant ports.

Comparing Protocol IDs and Ports

Some commonly used well-known ports

Some topics just require you to memorize information, and port numbers is one of those topics. It’s worth your time to memorize these port numbers and their related protocol. Don’t be surprised if you see questions such as “What is the default port for _______?” If you have the table memorized, these questions will be trivial to you.

You also need to know these ports for advanced questions, such as configuring a firewall rule to allow or block traffic based on the protocol.

When you take the CompTIA Security+ exam, you can write down your own notes as soon as you start. Many successful test takers memorize the ports in this table and write down the table as their very first action when they start the exam. Later, when they come across a question that requires the knowledge of a port number, it’s as simple as looking at their notes. If you don’t know these ports now, practice writing this table from memory so you’re ready when it’s time for the live exam.

Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

Remember this

Administrators use ports to identify traffic they want to allow or block. For example, SSH, SCP, and SFTP use TCP port 22 by default. So, by configuring a firewall to allow traffic on port 22, they are allowing SSH, SCP, and SFTP traffic. Memorize the ports in the table so that you can answer CompTIA Security+ port-related questions very easily.


Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Q. You need to enable the use of NetBIOS through a firewall. Which ports should you open?

A. 137 through 139

B. 20 and 21

C. 80 and 443

D. 22 and 3389

Answer is A. Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) uses ports 137 through 139.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) uses ports 20 and 21.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) uses port 80 and HTTP Secure (HTTPS) uses port 443.

You can connect to remote systems with Secure Shell (SSH) using port 22, and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) using port 3389.

See Chapter 3 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information basic network security.

You might like to check out the Firewall Rules and Security+ blog too.

Read More

Understanding Networking Protocols

Networking protocols provide the rules needed for computers to communicate with each other on a network. Some of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols, such as TCP and IP, provide basic connectivity. If you’re planning to take the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of many of the different protocols and networking devices that have a relevance to security.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. While reviewing logs on a firewall, you see several requests for the AAAA record of  gcgapremium.com. What is the purpose of this request?

A. To identify the IPv4 address of gcgapremium.com

B. To identify the IPv6 address of gcgapremium.com

C. To identify the mail server for gcgapremium.com

D. To identify any aliases used by gcgapremium.com

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Common TCP/IP Protocols

TCP/IP isn’t a single protocol, but a full suite of protocols. If any of these protocols are completely new to you, you might want to do some additional research to ensure you understand the basics. These groups of protocols include:

  • Basic connectivity protocols (TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, ARP, NDP)
  • Encryption protocols (SSH, SCP, SSL, TLS, IPsec)
  • Application protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, FTPS, TFTP)
  • Email protocols (SMTP, POP3, IMAP4)

Understanding Networking Protocols

IPv4

IPv4 uses 32-bit IP addresses expressed in dotted decimal format. For example, the IPv4 IP address of 192.168.1.5 is four decimals separated by periods or dots. You can also express the address in binary form with 32 bits.

All Internet IP addresses are public IP addresses, and internal networks use private IP addresses. Public IP addresses are tightly controlled. You can’t just use any public IP address. Instead, you must either purchase or rent it. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) purchase entire ranges of IP addresses and issue them to customers. If you access the Internet from home, you are very likely receiving a public IP address from an ISP.

Routers on the Internet include rules to drop any traffic that is coming from or going to a private IP address, so you cannot use private IP addresses on the Internet. RFC 1918 specifies the following private address ranges:

  • 10.x.y.z. 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
  • 172.16.y.z–172.31.y.z. 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
  • 192.168.y.z. 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

Full Security+ Course

Full Security+ Course Now Available

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course Now Available


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the Full Security+ Course Here

IPv6

Although the number of IP addresses at first seemed inexhaustible, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigned the last block of IPv4 addresses in February 2011. To prepare, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created IPv6, which provides a significantly larger address space than IPv4.

IPv6 supports a significantly larger address space than IPv4 with over 340 undecillion IP addresses. For context, the order is billion, trillion, quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion, nonillion, decillion, and undecillion. Everyone will have enough addresses to assign IP addresses to their computers, TVs, mobile phones, refrigerators, coffeemakers, toasters, and anything else they might want to control remotely.

IPv6 uses 128-bit IP addresses expressed in hexadecimal format. For example, the IPv6 IP address of fe80:0000:0000:0000:02d4:3ff7:003f:de62 includes eight groups of four hexadecimal characters, separated by colons. Each hexadecimal character is composed of four bits.

Get Certified Get Ahead

You can simplify IPv6 addresses by omitting leading zeroes in any group of hexadecimal characters, and with zero compression. The IPv6 address looks like this with these two rules:

  • Omit leading zeroes: fe80:0:0:0:2d4:3ff7:3f:de62
  • Zero compression: fe80::02d4:3ff7:003f:de62
  • Both rules: fe80::2d4:3ff7:3f:de62

The first example omits leading zeroes in five of the groups. Because you know that each group includes four characters, you know that any group with less than four characters is missing the leading zeroes. For example, :2d4 actually represents :02d4.

Zero compression substitutes a string of zeroes with two colons (::). For example, fe80::02d4:3ff7:003f:de62 is the same as fe80:0000:0000:0000:02d4:3ff7:003f:de62. You can only use one double colon in an IPv6 address.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide (SY0-401)

The 401 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


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Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Another benefit of IPv6 over IPv4 is that it has more security built in. For example, the tunneling services provided by IPsec are built in to IPv6 and work natively with it. This allows you to encrypt just about any data in transit relatively easily, including older legacy protocols such as Telnet.

In contrast, IPsec isn’t native to IPv4 and it has some compatibility issues. For example, when IPsec passes through a device using Network Address Translation (NAT), NAT breaks IPsec. Although there are ways to work around the issues, IPv6 doesn’t have the same problems.

DNS, IPv4, and IPv6

Domain Name System (DNS) uses some different records for IPv6. As an example, DNS IPv4 uses A records (also called a host record) to map the host name to an IPv4 address. In contrast, IPv6 uses an AAAA record to map the host name to an IPv6 address. The Configuring DNS Servers blog post has more information some DNS records.

Remember this

IPv6 has a significantly larger address space than IPv4. IPsec is built in to IPv6 and can encrypt any type of IPv6 traffic.


 

Q. While reviewing logs on a firewall, you see several requests for the AAAA record of gcgapremium.com. What is the purpose of this request?

A. To identify the IPv4 address of gcgapremium.com

B. To identify the IPv6 address of gcgapremium.com

C. To identify the mail server for gcgapremium.com

D. To identify any aliases used by gcgapremium.com

Answer is B. A Domain Name System (DNS) AAAA record identifies the IPv6 address of a given name.

An A record identifies the IPv4 address of a given name.

An MX record identifies a mail server.

A CNAME record identifies aliases.

See Chapter 3 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide for more information on basic network security.

You  might like to view these blog posts related to protocols:

Basic Connectivity Protocols

Encryption Protocols

Email Protocols

Read More
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

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