Accessing Networks Using NAC Systems

NAC provides a measure of control for other computers. It ensures that clients meet predetermined characteristics prior to accessing a network.  If you’re planning to take the SY0-501 or  SY0-401 Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of installing and configuring network components to support organizational security. This includes using NAC systems to isolate computers that don’t meet preset conditions.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. Your organization recently implemented a BYOD policy. However, management wants to ensure that mobile devices meet minimum standards for security before they can access any network resources. Which of the following agents would the NAC MOST likely have?

A. Permanent

B. Health

C. RADIUS

D. Dissolvable

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-501 Practice Test Questions Now Available

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Practice Test Questions

Host Health Checks

Administrators set predefined conditions for healthy clients and those that meet these preset conditions can access the network. The NAC system isolates computers that don’t meet the conditions. Common health conditions checked by a NAC are:

  • Up-to-date antivirus software, including updated signature definitions
  • Up-to-date operating system, including current patches and fixes
  • Firewall enabled on the client

NAC systems use authentication agents (sometimes called health agents) to inspect NAC clients. These agents are applications or services that check different conditions on the computer and document the status in a statement of health. When a client connects to a NAC-controlled network, the agent reports the health status of the NAC client.

Consider the figure. When a VPN client accesses the network, the VPN server queries the NAC health server to determine required health conditions. The VPN server also queries the client for a statement of the client’s health. If the client meets all health requirements, the NAC system allows the client to access the network.

Using NAC Systems

Using network access control

However, if a client doesn’t meet the health conditions mandated by the NAC server, the VPN server redirects the client to a remediation network (also called a quarantine network). The remediation network includes resources the client can use to get healthy. For example, it would include current approved patches, antivirus software, and updated virus signatures. The client can use these resources to improve its health and then try to access the network again.

While NAC can inspect the health of VPN clients, you can also use it to inspect the health of internal clients. For example, internal computers may occasionally miss patches and be vulnerable. NAC will detect the unpatched system and quarantine it. If you use this feature, it’s important that the detection is accurate. A false positive by the NAC system can quarantine a healthy client, and prevent it from accessing the network.

Similarly, your organization may allow visitors or employees to plug in their mobile computers to live wall jacks for connectivity, or connect to a wireless network. NAC inspects the clients, and if they don’t meet health conditions, they may be granted Internet access through the network but remain isolated from any other network activity.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 401 Version of the Study Guide

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Are you looking for SYO-501 Study Guide?

The 501 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available. Click Here.

Permanent Versus Dissolvable

Agents on clients can be either dissolvable or permanent. A permanent agent (sometimes called a persistent NAC agent) is installed on the client and stays on the client. NAC uses the agent when the client attempts to log on remotely. This is the most common implementation for corporate-owned devices, and for approved laptops and PCs that employees use to connect remotely.

A dissolvable agent is downloaded and run on the client when the client logs on remotely. It collects the information it needs, identifies the client as healthy or not healthy, and reports the status back to the NAC system. Some dissolvable NAC agents remove themselves immediately after they report back to the NAC system. Others remove themselves after the remote session ends.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-501 Practice Test Questions Now Available

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Practice Test Questions

Dissolvable agents are often used on mobile devices when an organization has implemented a bring your own device (BYOD) policy. Employee-owned devices are inspected for health, but the organization doesn’t require users to install extra software on their devices. However, these dissolvable agents can detect vulnerabilities on mobile devices, such as a jail-broken or rooted device. A jail-broken Apple device removes software restrictions, such as the ability to install software from sources other than the Apple store. A rooted Android device has been modified, allowing root-level access to, and the ability to modify, the Android operating system.

Many NAC vendors refer to dissolvable agents as an agentless capability, though this is somewhat of a misnomer. The NAC is still using an agent to inspect the client, but it is not installing the agent on the client.

Remember this

Network access control (NAC) includes methods to inspect clients for health, such as having up-to-date antivirus software. NAC can restrict access of unhealthy clients to a remediation network. You can use NAC for VPN clients and for internal clients. Permanent agents are installed on the clients. Dissolvable agents (sometimes called agentless) are not installed on the clients and are often used to inspect employee-owned mobile devices.


Full Security+ Course

SY0-401 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

Q. Your organization recently implemented a BYOD policy. However, management wants to ensure that mobile devices meet minimum standards for security before they can access any network resources. Which of the following agents would the NAC MOST likely have?

A. Permanent

B. Health

C. RADIUS

D. Dissolvable

Answer is D. A dissolvable agent is often used on employee-owned devices and would be appropriate if an organization implemented a bring your own device (BYOD) policy.

A permanent network access control (NAC) agent is installed on the device permanently, but this might cause problems for employee-owned devices.

Any NAC agent is a health agent.

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is used for authentication, not to inspect clients.

See Chapter 4 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

or

See Chapter 4 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide 

for more information on securing network.

Read More

CISSP and Adaptive Testing

Did you hear that the (ISC)2 CISSP exam is now using adaptive testing for the English version of the exam?

This is a welcome change for many people. It reduces the time length of the exam from up to 6 hours to up to 3 hours. It also reduces the number of questions from 250 to a range of 100 to 150. A passing score in both versions is 700 (out of 1000) and they typically include 25 experimental or beta questions that don’t count towards your score.

New CISSP Objectives Go Live April 15

(ISC)2 updates the objectives every three years and the 2018 version is effective April 15, 2018. You can download the updated objectives here.

If you’re looking for study materials, check out the updated CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Official Study Guide (8th Edition).

What is Adaptive Testing?

Adaptive testing asks you different questions based on how you answered previous questions to identify your competence level. As an example, imagine the exam wants to determine your knowledge about vulnerability assessments.

  • If you answer a question correctly, the next question will be more difficult.
  • If you answer a question incorrectly, the next question will be easier.
  • You cannot go back to see previous questions.

Imagine that the exam has five questions on vulnerability assessments For simplicity, let’s call them Question 1 through Question 5. Question 1 is the easiest and Question 5 is the most difficult.

The algorithms for adaptive testing vary. However, the following scenarios show different ways the adaptive exam may work. For each one, imagine that you see Question 4 first.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 1 – Pass (2 Questions)

The Quiz shows you Question 4.

  • You answer it correctly.
  • You will then see Question 5 (the most difficult question for the sub-objective).
  • You answer Question 5 correctly.
  • The quiz assumes you understand this topic and gives you a Pass for the topic.

Note that you only had to answer two questions for the topic.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 2 – Pass (5 Questions)

The Quiz shows you Question 4.

  • You answer it incorrectly.
  • You will then see Question 3 (a question less difficult than Question 4).
  • You answer Question 3 correctly.
  • You will then see Question 5 (the most difficult question for the topic).
  • You answer Question 5 incorrectly.
  • You then answer Question 2 and Question 1 correctly
  • You have answered three questions correctly (1 through 3) and the quiz gives you a pass for the topic.
  • If you answer it correctly, you’ll see Question 1.

Note that you had to answer all five questions for the topic in this scenario.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 3 – Fail (3 Questions)

The Quiz shows you Question 4.

  • You answer it incorrectly.
  • You will then see Question 3 (a question less difficult than Question 4).
  • You answer Question 3 incorrectly.
  • You will then see Question 2 (a question less difficult than Question 3).
  • You answer Question 2 incorrectly.
  • At this point, you’ve answered three questions incorrectly and the quiz gives you a fail for the topic.

Note that you only answered three questions for the topic. However, because you didn’t get any of them correct, the exam assumes you do not have an adequate understanding of the topic and stops giving you additional questions.

Are These Adaptive Testing Scenarios Accurate?

The exact algorithm that (ISC)2 test developers used to create the exam is probably protected as a proprietary secret and I don’t know it. However, the scenarios are accurate descriptions of how an adaptive exam can evaluate your understanding. They also show how one person may see only two questions for a topic, and why another person may see five questions for the same topic.

Additionally, it’s unlikely that any topic has only five Questions. Instead, it may have 15 questions, with three questions in each difficulty level of Question 1 (least difficult) to Question 5 (most difficult). This allows the exam to give different test takers different questions, but at the same difficultly level.

Also, (ISC)2 weighs objectives differently, so another topic may have ten different difficulty levels, again, with multiple questions in each difficulty level.

What Happens if I Fail a Topic

If you fail a topic, it doesn’t mean you failed the exam. However, you are required to pass a specific number of topics to pass the exam.

For simplicity, imagine that the exam covers only ten topics, they are all weighted equally, and you are expected to pass seven of them.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 1 Quick Fail

If you fail the first four topics, you fail the exam because you can only answer six topics correctly at this point.

It’s highly likely that the testing engine will not show you the rest of the questions knowing that you already failed.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 2 Quick Pass

If you pass the first seven topics, you pass the exam. The testing engine may stop the exam and let you know that you passed.

However, (ISC)2 puts beta questions in for testing, so you’ll probably still see questions from the other three topics.

Adaptive Testing Scenario 3 Pass

You see all ten topics and pass at least seven of them. You pass.

 

700 Out of 1000

A passing score for the (ISC)2 CISSP exam is 700 out of a total of 1000.

Unlike the simple testing scenario, topics are worth more than a single point. In other words, you won’t see 1000 topics (thank goodness!). Instead, the topics are weighted differently and (ISC)2 has assigned different values for each of their topics.

Adaptive Testing Tips

When taking an adaptive exam, the following tips may help.

  • Do your best on every question. The earlier questions typically weigh more so the better you do on early questions, the less questions you’ll likely see.
  • Do not skip questions.  If you skip a question it will be marked wrong and you can’t go back.
  • Do not analyze the exam. While taking the exam, you may see a string of “easy” questions and think you’re about to fail the topic or even the exam. However, it’s entirely possible that your mastery of the topic makes difficult questions look easy to you. If you start stressing about issues that aren’t issues, the anxiety may impact your ability to answer other questions.
Read More

Implementing Proxy Server

Many networks use proxy servers (or forward proxy servers) to forward requests for services (such as HTTP or HTTPS) from clients. If you’re planning to take the  SY0-401 version or the SY0-501 version of the Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of installing and configuring network components to support organizational security such as using proxy servers.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q.  Management at your organization wants to prevent employees from accessing social media sites using company-owned computers. Which of the following devices would you implement?

A. Transparent proxy

B. Reverse proxy

C. Nontransparent proxy

D. Caching proxy

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Transparent Proxy Versus Nontransparent Proxy

A transparent proxy will accept and forward requests without modifying them. It is the simplest to set up and use and it provides caching.

In contrast, a nontransparent proxy server can modify or filter requests. Organizations often use nontransparent proxy servers to restrict what users can access with the use of URL filters. A URL filter examines the requested URL and chooses to allow the request or deny the request.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Many third-party companies sell subscription lists for URL filtering. These sites scour the Internet for web sites and categorize the sites based on what companies typically want to block. Categories may include anonymizers, pornography, gambling, web-based email, and warez sites. Anonymizers are sites that give the illusion of privacy on the Internet. Employees sometimes try to use anonymizers to bypass proxy servers, but a proxy server usually detects, blocks, and logs these attempts. Web-based email bypasses the security controls on internal email servers, so many organizations block them. Warez sites often host pirated software, movies, MP3 files, and hacking tools.

The subscription list can be loaded into the proxy server, and whenever a user attempts to access a site on the URL filter block list, the proxy blocks the request. Often, the proxy server presents users with a warning page when they try to access a restricted page. Many organizations use this page to remind users of a corporate acceptable usage policy, and some provide reminders that the proxy server is monitoring their online activity.

Proxy servers include logs that record each site visited by users. These logs can be helpful to identify frequently visited sites and to monitor user web browsing activities.

Remember this

A proxy server forwards requests for services from a client. It provides caching to improve performance and reduce Internet bandwidth usage. Nontransparent proxy servers use URL filters to restrict access to certain sites, and can log user activity.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 401 Version of the Study Guide

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Are you looking for SYO-501 Study Guide?

The 501 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available. Click Here.

Reverse Proxy

A reverse proxy accepts requests from the Internet, typically for a single web server. It appears to clients as a web server, but is forwarding the requests to the web server and serving the pages returned by the web server. The figure shows how a reverse proxy server is configured to protect a web server. Note that this configuration allows the web server to be located in the private network behind a second firewall.

Proxy Server

 

Reverse proxy server

Imagine that Bart wants to access http://gcgapremium.com. He types the URL into his browser and it connects to the reverse proxy server. The reverse proxy server connects to the web server and retrieves the web page. It then sends the web page to Bart. A reverse proxy server caches the web pages just as a forward proxy server does, so it can improve the overall web site performance.

The reverse proxy server can be used for a single web server or a web farm of multiple servers. When used with a web farm, it can act as a load balancer. You would place the load balancer in the DMZ to accept the requests and it then forwards the requests to different servers in the web farm using a load-balancing algorithm.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-401 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

Application Proxy

An application proxy is used for specific applications. It accepts requests, forwards the requests to the appropriate server, and then sends the response to the original requestor. A forward proxy used for HTTP is a basic application proxy. However, most application proxies are multipurpose proxy servers supporting multiple protocols such as HTTP and HTTPS.

As a more advanced example, imagine you buy a book from Amazon and Amazon ships it via United Parcel Service (UPS). Later, you check your account to see the status of the shipment. The Amazon web site sends a query to a UPS application proxy for the status. The UPS application proxy provides the status in a response. Internet applications exchange data this way using application programming interfaces (APIs). For example, UPS specifies the format of the request in an API. If the application proxy receives a properly formatted and valid request, it provides an answer.


Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-501 Practice Test Questions Now Available

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Practice Test Questions

Q.  Management at your organization wants to prevent employees from accessing social media sites using company-owned computers. Which of the following devices would you implement?

A. Transparent proxy

B. Reverse proxy

C. Nontransparent proxy

D. Caching proxy

Answer is C. A nontransparent proxy includes the ability to filter traffic based on the URL and is the best choice.

A transparent proxy doesn’t modify or filter requests.

A reverse proxy is used for incoming traffic to an internal firewall, not traffic going out of the network.

Proxy servers are caching proxy servers, but won’t block outgoing traffic.

See Chapter 3 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

or

See Chapter 3  of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

for more information on implementing a secure network.

Read More

Penetration Tests Activities

Many penetration tests include activities such as passive reconnaissance, active reconnaissance, initial exploitation, escalation of privilege, pivot, and persistence. If you’re planning to take the SY0-501 or  SY0-401 Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of penetration testing concepts.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. A penetration tester has successfully attacked a single computer within the network. The tester is now attempting to access other systems within the network via this computer. Which of the following BEST describes the tester’s current actions?

A. Performing reconnaissance

B. Performing the initial exploitation

C. Pivoting

D. Escalating privileges

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Penetration testing actively assesses deployed security controls within a system or network. It starts with passive reconnaissance, such as a vulnerability scan, but takes it a step further and tries to exploit vulnerabilities by simulating or performing an attack.

Passive Reconnaissance

Passive reconnaissance collects information about a targeted system, network, or organization using open-source intelligence. This includes viewing social media sources about the target, news reports, and even the organization’s web site. If the organization has wireless networks, it could include passively collecting information from the network such as network SSIDs. Note that because passive reconnaissance doesn’t engage a target, it isn’t illegal.

Passive reconnaissance does not include using any tools to send information to targets and analyze the responses. However, passive reconnaissance can include using tools to gather information from systems other than the target. For example, you can sometimes gain information about a domain name holder using the Whois lookup site (https://www.whois.com). Other times, you can gain information by querying Domain Name System (DNS) servers.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-401 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

Active Reconnaissance

Active reconnaissance includes using tools to send data to systems and analyzing the responses. It typically starts by using various scanning tools such as network scanners and vulnerability scanners. It’s important to realize that active reconnaissance does engage targets and is almost always illegal. It should never be started without first getting explicit authorization to do so.

The network scanning tools such as Nmap and Nessus can gather a significant amount of information about networks and individual systems. This includes identifying all IP addresses active in a network, the ports and services active on individual systems, and the operating system running on individual systems.

Remember this

Penetration tests include both passive and active reconnaissance. Passive reconnaissance uses open-source intelligence methods, such as social media and an organization’s web site. Active reconnaissance methods use tools such as network scanners to gain information on the target.

Initial Exploitation

After scanning the target, testers discover vulnerabilities. They then take it a step further and look for a vulnerability that they can exploit. For example, a vulnerability scan may discover that a system doesn’t have a patch installed for a known vulnerability. The vulnerability allows attackers (and testers) to remotely access the system and install malware on it.

With this knowledge, the testers can use known methods to exploit this vulnerability. This gives the testers full access to the system. They can then install additional software on the exploited system.

Penetration Tests Activities

 

Escalation of Privilege

In many penetration tests, the tester first gains access to a low-level system or low-level account. For example, a tester might gain access to Homer’s computer using Homer’s user account. Homer has access to the network, but doesn’t have any administrative privileges. However, testers use various techniques to gain more and more privileges on Homer’s computer and his network.

Chapter 6 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide discusses privilege escalation tactics that attackers often use. The “One Click Lets Them In” section discusses how advanced persistent threats (APTs) often use remote access Trojans (RATs) to gain access to a single system. Attackers trick a user into clicking a malicious link, which gives them access to a single computer. Attackers then use various scripts to scan the network looking for vulnerabilities. By exploiting these vulnerabilities, the attackers gain more and more privileges on the network.

Penetration testers typically use similar tactics. Depending on how much they are authorized to do, testers can use other methods to gain more and more access to a network.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-501 Practice Test Questions Now Available

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Practice Test Questions

Pivot

Pivoting is the process of using various tools to gain additional information. For example, imagine a tester gains access to Homer’s computer within a company’s network. The tester can then pivot and use Homer’s computer to gather information on other computers. Homer might have access to network shares filled with files on nuclear power plant operations. The tester can use Homer’s computer to collect this data and then send it back out of the network from Homer’s computer.

Testers (and attackers) can use pivoting techniques to gather a wide variety of information. Many times, the tester must first use escalation of privilege techniques to gain more privileges. However, after doing so, it’s possible that the tester can access databases (such as user accounts and password databases), email, and any other type of data stored within a network.

Remember this

After exploiting a system, penetration testers use privilege escalation techniques to gain more access to target systems. Pivoting is the process of using an exploited system to target other systems.


CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 401 Version of the Study Guide

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Are you looking for SYO-501 Study Guide?

The 501 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available. Click Here.

Q. A penetration tester has successfully attacked a single computer within the network. The tester is now attempting to access other systems within the network via this computer. Which of the following BEST describes the tester’s current actions?

A. Performing reconnaissance

B. Performing the initial exploitation

C. Pivoting

D. Escalating privileges

Answer is C. Pivoting is the process of accessing other systems through a single compromised system.

Reconnaissance techniques are done before attacking a system.

A successful attack on a single computer is the initial exploitation.

Escalating privileges attempts to gain higher privileges on a target.

See Chapter 8 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

or

Chapter 8 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

for more information on risk management.

Read More

Secure Coding Techniques

The CompTIA Security+ exam includes many concepts related to secure coding techniques. If you’re planning to take the SY0-401 or the SY0-501 Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of techniques such as proper error handling, input validation, and more.

As an example, can you answer this sample SY0-501 practice question?

Q. You are reviewing some Java code for an application and come across the following snippet:


 public class donuts {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      object stuffed = null;
      stuffed.heat ();
      …
      }
 }

You suspect that this will cause a problem. Which of the following BEST describes the problem?

A. NullPointerException

B. Invalid null assignment

C. Pointer dereference

D. Buffer overflow

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

SYO-501 Practice Test Questions Now Available

SYO-401 Practice Test Questions

Over 440 realistic Security+ practice test questions

All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

Pass the Security+ Exam

the First Time You Take It

Multiple quiz formats to let you use these questions based on the way you learn.
  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Learn mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. Use this if you want to make sure that you see all of the questions. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
  • Test mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - not randomized. View each of the questions in the same order. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.
  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ (SYO-401) Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Practice Test Questions

Deeper Than I’d Expect

Admittedly, this is much deeper than I would expect for a Security+ exam. A reader queried me asking how Java handled the use of null objects, and if accessing a null object could cause a dereference error.

My first thought was that this wasn’t relevant to the Security+ exam. However, I remembered that the objectives specifically mentioned pointer dereference as one of the issues that could cause a memory/buffer vulnerability.

I decided to dig in.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 401 Version of the Study Guide

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Are you looking for SYO-501 Study Guide?

The 501 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available. Click Here.

Simplest Explanation

Here is the simplest explanation:

  • This is a pointer dereference issue, or more specifically, a null-pointer dereference issue.
    • The object stuffed = null line creates an object (called stuffed) and assigns it a value of null (nothing).
    • The stuffed.heat (); line attempts to execute a method within a non-existent (null) object and causes a null-pointer dereference error (or exception).
    • If code attempts to use an object with a value of null, it assumes the object reference points to a valid memory error, but it doesn’t.

Programming languages allow you to assign null to objects when creating them so the code doesn’t describe an invalid null assignment.

While this will throw a NullPointerException error, the error isn’t the problem. The code that causes the pointer dereference error is the problem.

  • If the code is configured to handle exceptions (errors) gracefully, it doesn’t cause a significant vulnerability.
  • However, if the code doesn’t handle the exception gracefully, an attacker may be able to exploit the exception.

Note: The difference between the code causing a null-pointer dereference error, and the NullPointerException error that it causes is subtle. Think of it this way. Bart is driving down the road at 100 MPH on his new Harley Davidson motorcycle. Chief Wiggum witnesses this and gives him a ticket. While Bart may think that the ticket is the problem, the actual cause is him speeding at 100 MPH.

This exception doesn’t necessarily cause a buffer overflow vulnerability. However, depending on how the application handles the exception (or doesn’t handle the exception), an attacker may be able to use exception to cause a buffer overflow.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Deep Dive

If you are a Java developer, the syntax of the second line is probably familiar to you. It is a standard line to identify the Main method, or the entry point for the application.
    public static void main (String[] args)
If you aren’t a Java developer and this is the first time you saw it, you’d just have to guess about the programming language.

  • The code is creating a class called donuts.
         public class donuts {
    A class provides a definition for an object, but it doesn’t create an object.
    For comparison, a home builder has building plans to create a home. These plans aren’t a home. However, the builder can create multiple homes using these plans.
    Similarly, a class provides the building plans (or the definition) of an object. The class isn’t an object. However, an application can create multiple instances of the object (donuts in this example) using the definition provided by the class.
  • The following line creates an instance of a stuffed donut and assigns a value of null (nothing) to the object.
         object stuffed = null;
    A value of null indicates that the object doesn’t have any identification.
    An object is an instance of a class. It typically has properties that describe it and methods that identify actions for the object.
    In this example, “stuffed” indicates it is a stuffed donut.

    • Properties may be jelly-filled, chocolate-filled, no-stuffing, and so on.
    • A simple method may be “heat” (to make it hot).
  • The next line is the error.
         stuffed.heat ();
    It tries to call the heat method of a null object. In Java, it throws the NullPointerException error.

Full Security+ Course

SY0-401 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

You might like to read the OWASP Null Dereference article.

See Chapter 8 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide for more on Secure Coding Techniques.

 

Read More

High Availability

If you’re planning to take the SY0-401 or the SY0-501 Security+ exam, you should have a basic understanding of how resiliency and automation strategies reduce risk. This includes high availability, distributive allocation, redundancy, fault tolerance, and RAID.

For example, can you answer this question?

Q. Your organization is planning to deploy a new e-commerce web site. Management anticipates heavy processing requirements for a back-end application. The current design will use one web server and multiple application servers. Which of the following BEST describes the application servers?

A. Load balancing

B. Clustering

C. RAID

D. Affinity scheduling

More, do you know why the correct answer is correct and the incorrect answers are incorrect? The answer and explanation is available at the end of this post.

Get Certified Get Ahead

Load Balancers for High Availability

A load balancer can optimize and distribute data loads across multiple computers or multiple networks. For example, if an organization hosts a popular web site, it can use multiple servers hosting the same web site in a web farm. Load-balancing software distributes traffic equally among all the servers in the web farm, typically located in a DMZ.

The term load balancer makes it sound like it’s a piece of hardware, but a load balancer can be hardware or software. A hardware-based load balancer accepts traffic and directs it to servers based on factors such as processor utilization and the number of current connections to the server. A software-based load balancer uses software running on each of the servers in the load- balanced cluster to balance the load. Load balancing primarily provides scalability, but it also contributes to high availability. Scalability refers to the ability of a service to serve more clients without any decrease in performance. Availability ensures that systems are up and operational when needed. By spreading the load among multiple systems, it ensures that individual systems are not overloaded, increasing overall availability.

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide

The 401 Version of the Study Guide

SY0-401 Study GuideThe CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide is an update to the top-selling SY0-201 and SY0-301 study guides, which have helped thousands of readers pass the exam the first time they took it.

CompTIA Authorized Quality Content (CAQC)After a comprehensive review by ProCert Labs, the SY0-401 version has been certified as CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) and covers every aspect of the SY0-401 exam.

It includes the same elements readers raved about in the previous two versions.

Each of the eleven chapters presents topics in an easy to understand manner and includes real-world examples of security principles in action.

You’ll understand the important and relevant security topics for the Security+ exam, without being overloaded with unnecessary details. Additionally, each chapter includes a comprehensive review section to help you focus on what’s important.


Click for Free Preview


Over 400 realistic practice test questions with in-depth explanations will help you test your comprehension and readiness for the exam. The book includes:

  • A 100 question pre-test
  • A 100 question post-test
  • Practice test questions at the end of every chapter.

Each practice test question includes a detailed explanation to help you understand the content and the reasoning behind the question. You’ll be ready to take and pass the exam the first time you take it.

If you plan to pursue any of the advanced security certifications, this guide will also help you lay a solid foundation of security knowledge. Learn this material, and you’ll be a step ahead for other exams. This SY0-401 study guide is for any IT or security professional interested in advancing in their field, and a must read for anyone striving to master the basics of IT security.

Kindle edition also available.

Are you looking for SYO-501 Study Guide?

The 501 Version of the Study Guide is Now Available. Click Here.

Consider a web server that can serve 100 clients per minute, but if more than 100 clients connect at a time, performance degrades. You need to either scale up or scale out to serve more clients. You scale the server up by adding additional resources, such as processors and memory, and you scale out by adding additional servers in a load balancer.

The figure shows an example of a load balancer with multiple web servers configured in a web farm. Each web server includes the same web application. A load balancer uses a scheduling technique to determine where to send new requests. Some load balancers simply send new requests to the servers in a round-robin fashion. The load balancer sends the first request to Server 1, the second request to Server 2, and so on. Other load balancers automatically detect the load on individual servers and send new clients to the least used server.

 

Load balancing

Some load balancers use source address affinity to direct the requests. Source affinity sends requests to the same server based on the requestor’s IP address. As an example, imagine that Homer sends a request to retrieve a web page. The load balancer records his IP address and sends his request to Server 3. When he sends another request, the load balancer identifies his IP address and sends his request to Server 3 again. Source affinity effectively sticks users to a specific server for the duration of their sessions.

A software-based load balancer uses a virtual IP. For example, imagine the IP address of the web site is 72.52.206.134. This IP address isn’t assigned to a specific server. Instead, clients send requests to this IP address and the load-balancing software redirects the request to one of the three servers in the web farm using their private IP addresses. In this scenario, the actual IP address is referred to as a virtual IP.

An added benefit of many load balancers is that they can detect when a server fails. If a server stops responding, the load-balancing software no longer sends clients to this server. This contributes to overall high availability for the load balancer.


Full Security+ Course

SY0-401 Full Security+ Course

Helping you Pass the First Time

Online access includes all of the content from the

CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

  • Introduction
  • About the exam (including types of questions and strategies for performance-based questions)
  • 100 question pre-assessment exam
  • Mastering Security Basics (full content from Chapter 1 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Control Types and Methods (full content from Chapter 2 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Basic Network Security (full content from Chapter 3 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Your Network (full content from Chapter 4 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Securing Hosts and Data (full content from Chapter 5 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Malware and Social Engineering (full content from Chapter 6 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Identifying Advanced Attacks (full content from Chapter 7 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Managing Risk (full content from Chapter 8 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Preparing for Business Continuity (full content from Chapter 9 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Understanding Cryptography (full content from Chapter 10 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • Exploring Operational Security (full content from Chapter 11 of the study guide including the exam topic review and 20 practice test questions)
  • 100 question post-assessment exam
  • Security+ Acronyms

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

 Full Security+ Course


Test your readiness with these quality materials

Random 100-question tests

Random practice tests from the all of the practice test questions in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct, and why the incorrect answers are incorrect.

34 Simulated Performance-based Questions

Eight sets of performance-based questions with multiple questions in each set. These questions help you understand and prepare for performance based questions.

22 Realistic Performance-based Questions

Two new sets of performance-based questions with a total of 22 questions. These new questions use a new testing engine that includes realistic drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in the blank questions.

Flashcard Set

  • 273 Security+ Flashcards to reinforce key testable concepts
  • 280 Security+ acronyms flashcards to help you master the required acronyms
  • 204 Security+ Remember This slides

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Remember This Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over one hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Audio - SY0-401 Security+ Question and Answer Audio Files

Learn by Listening. Over three hours hour and 15 minutes of audio (MP3 downloads.)

Bonus #1

Audio from the end of chapter reviews from each of the chapters in the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide. Over one hour and 15 minutes of additional audio.

Bonus #2

Subnetting mini-tutorial that will help you answer two key question types:
  • Identify how many hosts a subnet supports
  • Identify valid IP addresses within a subnet

Bonus #3 

Access the study materials for a total of 60 days because sometimes life happens.

Get the SY0-401 Full Security+ Course Here

Click here if you're looking for SYO-501 Full Security+ Course

Q. Your organization is planning to deploy a new e-commerce web site. Management anticipates heavy processing requirements for a back-end application. The current design will use one web server and multiple application servers. Which of the following BEST describes the application servers?

A. Load balancing

B. Clustering

C. RAID

D. Affinity scheduling

Answer is A. The design is using load balancing to spread the load across multiple application servers. The scenario indicates the goal is to use multiple servers because of heavy processing requirements, and this is exactly what load balancing does.

Clustering is typically used to provide high availability by failing over to another server if one server fails.

RAID provides fault tolerance for disk drives, not servers.

Affinity scheduling helps ensure clients go to the same server during a session, but this isn’t relevant to this scenario.

See Chapter 9 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-501 Study Guide

or

Chapter 9 of the CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

for more information on redundancy and fault tolerance.

Read More
CompTIA Security+: Get Certified Get Ahead: SY0-401 Study Guide

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