ACLs and Security+

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If you plan to take the Security+ exam, you should have a good understanding of access control lists (ACLs).  This series of posts covers them and how they’re used on routers and firewalls to restrict traffic. It ends with a challenge to create ACLs.

If you’re planning on taking the Security+ exam, you should know how to create ACLs to answer some performance based questions correctly.

Routers and ACLs

Access control lists (ACLs) are rules implemented on routers (and on firewalls) to identify what traffic is allowed and what traffic is denied. Rules within the ACLs provide rule-based management for the router and control inbound and outbound traffic.

ACLs on routers provide basic packet filtering. They can filter packets based on IP addresses, ports, and some protocols, such as ICMP or IPsec, based on the protocol identifiers.

  • IP addresses and networks. You can add a rule in the ACL to block access from any single computer based on the IP address. If you want to block traffic from one subnet to another, you can use a rule to block traffic using the subnet IDs. For example, the sales department may be in the 192.168.1.0/24 network and the accounting department may be in the 192.168.5.0/24 network. You can ensure traffic from these two departments stays separate with an ACL on a router. If you want to block traffic to a single computer you would use /32. For example if you wanted to block traffic to a computer with an IP address of 192.168.1.1, you would use 192.168.1.1/32.
  • Ports. You can filter traffic based on logical ports. For example, if you want to block HTTP traffic, you can create a rule to block traffic on port 80. Note that you can choose to block incoming traffic, outgoing traffic, or both. In other words, it’s possible to allow outgoing HTTP traffic while blocking incoming HTTP traffic.
  • Protocol identifiers. Many protocols are identified by their protocol IDs. For example, ICMP uses a protocol ID of 1 and many DoS attacks use ICMP. You can block all ICMP traffic (and the attacks that use it) by blocking traffic using this protocol ID. Many automated IPSs dynamically block ICMP traffic in response to attacks. Similarly, you can restrict traffic to only packets encrypted with IPsec ESP using a rule that allows traffic using protocol ID 50, but blocks all other traffic.

Implicit Deny

Implicit deny is an important concept to understand, especially in the context of ACLs. It indicates that all traffic that isn’t explicitly allowed, is implicitly denied. For example, imagine you configure a router to allow Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to a web server. The router now has an explicit rule defined to allow this traffic to the server. If you don’t define any other rules, then the implicit deny rule blocks all other traffic.

The implicit deny rule is the last rule in an ACL. Some devices automatically apply the implicit deny rule as the last rule. However, some devices require an administrator to place the rule at the end of the ACL manually. Syntax of an implicit deny rule varies on different systems but it might be something like Deny Any Any, or Deny All All, where Any indicates any type of traffic and All indicates all traffic.

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Remember this

Routers and packet-filtering firewalls perform basic filtering with an access control list (ACL). ACLs identify what traffic is allowed and what traffic is blocked. An ACL can control traffic based on networks, subnets, IP addresses, ports, and some protocols. Implicit deny blocks all access that has not been explicitly granted. Routers and firewalls use implicit deny as the last rule in the access control list.

Security+ Practice Test Questions

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Page 1 of 3 ACLs and Security+ (this page)

Page 2 Firewall Rules and Security+

Page 3 Firewall Rules Solution

Security+ Practice Test Questions

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All questions include explanations so you'll know why the correct answers are correct,

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  • Learn mode - randomized. View each of the questions in random order. Learn mode allows you to keep selecting answers until you select the correct answer. Once you select the correct answer, you'll see the explanation. Click here to see how learn mode works.
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  • Test mode - 100 random questions. View 100 random questions from the full test bank similar to how the Security+ exam has a potential maximum of 100 multiple choice questions. In test mode, you can only see the correct answers and explanations after you complete the test. Click here to see how test mode works.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

 SYO-401 Practice Test Questions Now Available


INCLUDES QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU PREPARE

FOR THE NEW PERFORMANCE BASED QUESTIONS 

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions

Simulated Performance-based Questions

Bonus - Performance Based Questions

Simulated performance-based questions included with all

packages that include practice test questions.

Additional Security+ questions to help you prepare for the new performance based questions. These are included with the full bank of Security+ practice test questions and are divided into different sections. For example, you'll have access to the following links:

- Performance Based Question - Set 1

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of security to mobile devices and servers in a data center. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 2

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 3

You'll see a graphic showing a network with computers and servers separated by a firewall. The firewall is used to control traffic between the computers and users using rules within an access control list (ACL).  You'll have three questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly identify the relevant components of the rule. The incorrect answers and explanation provide you with insight into how to correctly answer this type of question on the actual exam.

- Performance Based Question - Set 4

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam related to what a forensic analyst would do during an investigation. You'll then have two questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 5

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match protocols and ports. You'll then have seven questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 6

You'll see a list of security controls along with a graphic showing devices and locations within an organization, along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the controls with the devices and locations. You'll then have four questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This question also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 7

You'll see a list of authentication methods and authentication factors along with instructions on what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match the authentication methods with the authentication factors. You'll then have six questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This set also includes a link to a graphic showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

- Performance Based Question - Set 8

You'll see a graphic explaining what you might be required to do on the actual exam to match different types of attacks with the name of the attack type. You'll then have five questions that test your knowledge and ability to correctly answer the questions. This is similar to Set 2 but expands on the possibilities. The set also includes a link to a page showing the end solution for the overall performance based question simulation.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 9

New questions recently added using a different testing engine. See a demo here. This set includes drag and drop and matching questions on ports.

New - Performance Based Question - Set 10

A random set of 20 performance-based questions using drag and drop, matching, sorting, and fill in-the blank. This set includes performance-based questions on RAID.

Get the full bank of Security+ Practice Test Questions Here

Simulated performance-based questions included with

all packages that include practice test questions.

 

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